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CHAPTER 17




Physical features of the Great Plains that impeded western settlement

treeless, nearly flat, an endless sea of grassy hillocks.
It extends from the Miss. river to the Rocky Mountains.
Prairies Plains- eastern, rich soil, good rainfall
High Plains- western, rough, semiarid.

Lifestyle of the Great Plains' Indians

nomadic, warlike, depended on buffalo and horses, no farming. Buffalo provided food, clothing, and shelter.
Had a chief and council of elders. Could communicate with other tribes with sign language. Warfare consisted of brief raids and skirmishes. Fought few prolonged wars. Men hunted, traded, supervised activities, cleared ground for plants. Women raised children, had artistic activity, performed camp work, gather berries and and roots, planted veggies, prepared buffalo stuff. Little difference in power in genders. Egalitarian society.


Major US government Indian policies from 1830 to 1890

1834- Indian intercourse act- no white was allowed in Indian country without a license. Made the Indian territory "one big reservation".
1851- concentration policy- defined boundaries to each tribe.
1867- "small reservations" policy- isolate the Indians to distant lands. Teach them to farm, civilize them, send to Oklahoma.
1871- "assimilation" policy- wanted to use education, land policy, and federal law to eradicate tribal society. Were no longer separate nations- lost political and judicial powers.
1887- Dawes Severalty Act- divided tribal lands into small plots for distribution.

What is the most significant blow to Indian tribal life?
the extermination of the buffalo. There were 3 million buffalo killed annually.
Describe the US government's land distribution policy from 1862-1890
Homestead Act of 1862- gave 160 acres of land to anyone who would pay a 10 dollar registration fee and pledge to live on it and cultivate it for five years.
Timber Culture Act of 1873- allowed homesteaders to claim an additional 160 acres if they planted tress on a quarter of it within four years. It was adjusted to western conditions.
Desert Land Act of 1877- allowed individuals to obtain 640 acres in the arid states for 1.25 an acre provided they irrigated part of it within three years.
Timber and Stone Act of 1878- applied only to lands unfit for cultivation and valuable for timber or stone which permitted anyone in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington to buy up to 160 acres of forest land for 2.50 an acre.
Identify the largest landowning group in the west
Americans in general. Mainly whites. They settled in a total of 430 million acres in the west.
Describe the major components of territorial government in the west
Started with the Northwest ordinance of 1787 which established the rules for territories to become states. The president appointed the governor and judges in each territory, Congress delegated their duties, set budgets, and oversaw activities. Territorial officials had almost absolute power. Territories depended on the federal government.
Discuss the Spanish influences in southwestern life and institutions
Techniques of mining, stock raising, and irrigated farming. The Mexicans brought new laws, ranching methods, chaps, and the burro. They created the legal framework for distributing land and water. They gave grants of land to communities for grazing and as rewards. Men became dominant in the family. Women had a higher status than the American.s. Wives controlled the property acquired before marriage. Roman Catholic religion, Spanish language, customs, names.
List the major mining strikes in the American West from 1848 to 1876
California Gold Rush of 1849
Comestock Lode of 1859
Big Bonanza of 1873
Black Hills Rush of 1874 to 1876
Describe the typical mining camp in the 19th century
Governed by a single democracy. The miners in the area organized a mining district and established rules. Camps were mostly male. Women worked claims, were cooks, housekeepers, and seamstresses. Half of the population there were foreign born- Chinese, Peruvians, Mexicans, French, Germans, English.
Describe the steps in the development of the cattle industry
Vaqueros (Mexican cowboys) established the teqniues of branding, roundups and roping.
McCoy started to get the beef to eastern market by railroad.
Most famous trail- the Chisholm which was prime shipping center between 1875 and 1879.
There were mechanical improvements in slaughtering, refridgerated transportation, and cold storage.
Then during the cold winter of 1886 caused the cattle industry to crash.
Identify the major social and legal aspects of cowboy society
1/4 of the cowboys were black, 1/4 of the cowboys were Mexican. Trail bosses were white- earned 125 a month.
Established there own laws- a cowboy who shot another was hanged. Ranchers adopted rules for ownership, branding, roundups, drives, had associations.
Describe the physical and nature-related problems facing western farmers.
Little surface water, wells ranged from 50 to 500 feet. Well drillers charged 2 dollars a foot. Windmills were expensive to bring water to the surface. Lumber for houses and fences was expensive. Started to make sod houses- 2.76 to make, but water seeped through the roof. Neighbors were distant, savage storms in the winter. Hot summers- 110 degrees. Rainstorms beat down the young corn. Grasshopper would eat everything in sight.
Explain the new farming methods developed in the American West
Dry farming- plowing furrows 14inches deep which loosened the soil and slowed evaporation. Wheat farmers imported English varieties that could withstand the harsh winters.
1877- the chilled iron plow didn't clog in the soil.
1869- spring-tooth harrow sped soil preparation
1874- grain driller fed seed into the ground
1878- first successful harvester- corn binder
Name the problems causing western farmer discontent.
In 1887, 1889, and 1894, there were severe droughts. There were declining crop prices, rising railroad rates, and heavy mortgages.

CHAPTER 18




Explains the factors that caused rapid industrial growth in the nineteenth century

The abundance of natural resources: coal, iron, timber, petroleum, waterpower.
Labor was abundant.
The increasing population which led to expanded markets, which the creation of the telegraph and telephone helped to exploit.
The railroads spread goods faster.
Inventions made production faster.
Tariff barriers protected producers from outside competition.
Government gave manufacturers money, land, and resources.
List the elements in the transportation and communications revolutions
The steamship
The telegraph
The telephone
The railroad
Steel
Explain the advantages of the railroads in promoting economic growth
More direct routes, greater speed, greater safety and comfort than other methods of land travel, more dependable schedules, large volume of traffic, and year round service.
Covers 700 miles a day.
It went directly to the factories and across the West unlike canals and rivers.
Brought in outside products.
Encouraged economic specialization.
Linked widely seperated cities.
Started business development.
Describe how post-Civil War railroads were constructed and their political and economic impact on society
Railroad construction increased dramatically. It took large amounts of capitol- more than 3.5 billion by 1880. Investors provided some of the money. Govt supplied the rest. Federal govt supplied land and money. The grants of cash and land promoted waste and corruption.
Name the major Northeast trunk lines
The Baltimore and Ohio- hit Chicago
The Erie Railroad- New York to Chicago
The New York Central Railroad- New York to Buffulo and Chicago
The Pennsylvania Railroad- Philadelphia to Pittsburg
Explain how the first Pacific railroad was constructed and financed
Two companies chartered by Congress- the Union Pacific Railroad Company and the Central Pacific Railroad Company.
For each mile built, the two companies recieved 20 square miles along the track, as well as a 30 year loan of 16 to 48 thousand dollars depending on the terrain.
Describe the economic results of railroad growth in the US
Lines paralleled each other.
Inflated prices of goods.
Competition wasd severe- special rates given (free passes, low rates on bulk purchases, rebates).

Explain why the steel industry grew in the 1870's and 1880's


The Bessemer process developed in 1850 by Harry Bessemer made increased steel production possible. A blast of air forces through molten iron burned off carbon and other impurities resulting in steel of a higher quality. A Bessemer converter handled 5 tons of molten metal at a time which made mass production of steel possible.

Explain why Andrew Carnegie triumphed in the steel industry to 1901

He created the company called J. Edgar Thomas Steel Works. He attracted able partners and subordinates. He kept the wages low and disliked labor unions.
In 1878, he won the steel contract for the Brooklyn Bridge. His profits skyrocketed. He produced more steel than Britain. It was the largest industrial company in the work.






Describe why John D. Rockefeller triumphed in the oil industry

He built the Standard Oirl Company. He considered competition wasteful, small scale enterprise was wasteful, and started consolidation. He demanded efficiency, cost cutting, and the latest technology. He marketed products of high quality at the lowest unit cost. His company owned wells, timberlands, barrel and chemical plants, refineries, warehouses, pipelines. It exported to Asia, Africa, and South America. He established a trust- a board of people who would control, hold, and manage all of the companies proberties. This centralized the control.

List the TWO MOST important innovations of the late nineteenth century

The telephone and the use of electricity for power.

Describe the changes that took place in the selling or merchandising of products in the late nineteenth century

Businesses spent 50 million on advertising.
The rotary press made newspapers which increased advertising.
The "chain store" spread across the country. (grocery stores)
The use of mail order catalogs.
Also, brand name items.

Discuss the working conditions of the late nineteenth century wage earner

Greuling and dangerous work. Safety standards were low, accidents were common. Thousands suffered from chronic illness due to dust, chemicals, and pollutants.
Describe the workplace conditions for nineteenth century women
The Pullman Strike of 1894 and the Supreme Courts ruling in in re Debs. In Holden v. hardy, the Court upheld a law limiting working hours for miners because work was dangerous and long hours may increase injuries.
There was the great railroad strike of 1877.
The worst was the Haymarket Square in Chicago
where workers had been compaining for an 8 hour work day.
The Homestead Strike also.
List the major components of the 19th century labor movement
1. Unity
2. Support for members
3. Higher wages
4. Shorter hours
5. Improved working conditions

CHAPTER 19




List the major changes in American lifestyles from 1877 to 1890

Family ties loosened. Factories made consumer goods. Cash registers rang up sales. Public and private education burgeoned. illiteracy declined. Life expectancy increased. Food prices were low. Medical science revolution. Vaccines were developed. Icebox developed.
Identify the developments in city architecture and housing patterns in the late nineteenth century.
Working class families lived in complex household units where they would take in relatives and boarders to pay the rent.

Describe the social characteristics of immigrants for 1877 to 1890

The source of immigration was mainly from northern and western Europe. Tended to be Protestant. Most were poor and uneducated, unskilled, spoke "strange languages".

Describe the social characteristics of immigrants for 1890 to 1910

The source of immigrants cvame from southern and eastern Europe:Italy, Greece, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Russia. Tended to be Catholics or Jews. Most were poor and uneducated, unskilled. Typical family structure and roles.

Explain how the urban political machines worked from 1850 to 1900.

The machines traded votes for services. Power structures were complex involving a host of people and institutions like banks, real estate investors, insurance companies, architects, engineers, etc. They provided water and sewer lines, built parks, and roads. Bosses differed from city to city. bosses were kept in place because of skillful political organization and the fact that immigrants and others made up the bosses' consitiuency. immigrants fell for these bosses because they had little experience with democracy.

Identify the major reform movements from 1877 to 1890

Reforms based off of social Dawainism- the stress on the slow pace of change which suggests the need for reform.
Major reform movements
Henry George- attack on the the seperation of the social classes- rich become richer, poor become poorer. What to do? Tax land that would help stabalize wealth and raise revenue to help the poor.
Darrow believed criminals were made, not born.
Ely believed that government shouldn't have a hand in govt.
Bellamy believed that cooperation not competition is better.
Religious reform- Social Gospel
focused on society and living conditions for people as well as saving souls.

Name the main types of popular entertainment from 1877 to 1890.

Children did their lessons, played games, sang around the piano, and listened to that day's verse from the Bible. Popular games included cards, backgammon, chess, and checkers. Had author cards to play with.There was the stereopticon which brought three demensional life to art, history, and nature. The newest outdoor game was croquet. Sentimental ballads was perferred type of music. Classical music flourished. Circuses were popular. Fairs, horse races, balloon ascensions, byclye races, football, baseball.

Explain how the average American middle class family changed from 1877 to 1890

Family members were very isolated from each other, too busy due to work. New burdens placed on wives. Children and wives became isolated from the father. Decline in fertility rates.
Identify the main American educational trends from 1877 to 1890



Children were to be nurtured instead of rushing into adulthood. Schooling became important, illiteracy rates fell. Many children dropped out of school, it was harsh. Children preffered working in the factory over school. They beat the children at school. The South was behind in education.


Name the court case establishing the "seperate but equal" doctrine.
Plessy v. Ferguson upheld a Louisiana law requiring different railroad carts for blacks and whites.

Describe the factors fostering the growth in higher education to 1900

The Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 gave land grants for colleges to teach agriculture and the mechanical arts. 62 land grants for colleges. Private philanthropy spurred this growth. People sponsoring the schools.

Describe the place of blacks in high education from 1860 to 1900

Black students turned to black colleges like Hampton Normal and Industrial Institute in Virginia.

Describe the goal of Booker t. Washington's "Atlanta Compromise'

Slow progress through self improvement not through lawsuits or agitation. Rather than fight for equal rights, blacks should acquire rights and prove that they are worthy of their rights. He believed in black equality.

Explain how Henery George proposed to close the gap between America's rich and poor

By putting a 1 percent tax on land to spread the wealth and give to the poor.

Describe the backgroud and goals of the Settlement House program

Social reformers believed that the poor should be helped so they wanted to eradicate the dependent nature of the poor so they formed settlement houses in the slums. Social workers tried to provide community service. Goals were to bridge the socioeconomic gap between rich and poor and to bring education, culture, and hope to the slums.

CHAPTER 20




Identify the issues supported by the Gilded Age Democratic Party

States' rights, decentralization, limited government. Gov't should be local and small

Identify the issues supported by the Gilded Age Republican Party

Civil rights and military rule, policies for the nation as a whole, gov't was an institution to promote moral progress and material wealth.

Name the court case giving states the right to regulate railroads

Munn v. Illinois. It declared railroads to be public highways and authorized the legislature to pass laws establishing maximum rates and preventing rate discrimination.

Describe the Gilded age presidents and their accomplishments

Hayes- reforming the civila service, ended military reconstruction.
Vetoed the bill for coinage of silver, but it was overrided.
Garfield- lowered the taxes of tariff to cut taxes, wanted to use strategetic efforts in S America.
Arthur- reversed Garfield's foreign policy in S America, approved the construction of the navy. Worked to lower the tariff with the Pendleton Act.
Cleaveland- vetoed two thirds of the bills presented to him. Reviewed veteran pensions and civil service appointments.
Continued naval reconstruction, lowered the tariff.

List the laws passed by the Republican-controlled Congress in 1890

McKinley Tariff Act which raised tariff duties about 4 percent higher. It allowed industries to promote new items: canned veggies.
Dependent pensions Act- pensions granted to Union army veterans and their widows and children.
Sherman Antitrust Act- federal attempt to deal with big business. The US gov't regulated busniess trades and such.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act- bimetal system based on gold and silver. Favored both sides- silver was bought by the treasury and money was given back as treasury notes.
Federal Election Bill- so blacks could vote.

Describe the Populists' major complaints

Declining prices for their products
Rising railroad rates for shipping
Burdensome mortgages

Describe the Ocala Platform of the Populists

1890- the Alliance adopted the Ocala Demands.
Demands called for the creation of a sub treasury system which would allow farmers to store their crops in govt warehouses.
Treasury notes given up to 80 percent until the crops were sold.
Urged to have the free coinage of silver
An end to protective tariffs and national banks
The direct election of senators
Tighter regulation of railroad companies

Describe the role of the Populists in the 1892 election

They added another party to vote for at election. The Populists' were irritated because the Democrats exploited the Alliance popularity but didn't stick to those reforms. Although, the main guy, Polk, had died so it was mixed results between the Democrats and the Populist vote. Many people shifted votes, although the Democrats won (Grover Cleaveland).


Evaluate Grover Cleveland's response to the Depression of 1893
He repealed the Sherman Purchse Act of 1890. This didn't bring economic revival.
Then, Cleaveland resorted to a sale of 50 million in gold bonds to replenish the gold reserves.
He also tried to reduce the Wilson Gorman Tariff Act of 1894

Describe how and why women and children entered the labor force following the Depression of 1893

Husbands and fathers began to lose their jobs so more and more women and children entered the labor force. They took in boarders and found jobs as laudresses, cleaners, or domestics. They also worked in factories and offices. Women were cheaper labor than men.

Describe the developments in American literature of the 1870's

Toward realism and naturalism. How to get ahead in busniess and life. Began to reject romanticism and escapism, turning to realism. They were determined to portray life as it was. Reflected broad trends in society like industrialism, evolutionary theory, pragmatism (relativity of values). Also regionalist authors who focused on one warea like the Southern living.

Describe the campaign strategies of the candidates in 1896

Republicans had a gold based platform
Democrats had a silver based platform
Also wanted to focus on the farmers and businessman.
Populists had propasls dealing with a graduated income tax, crop loans to farmers, secret ballot, and direct election of senators.

Evaluate the economy and domestic legislation of the first McKinley administration

Stock market roose, factories went back into busniess, farmers prospered. Gold was found in Alaska and Australia.
He revised the tax. Wanted to promote economic growth.Wanted to regulate the industrial system.
Focused on the Gold Standard Tax.

Describe the results of the election of 1900.

t was a landslide- McKinley won.