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162 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the Cardiovascular System consist of?

A Pump

A Conduction System

A Fluid Medium

What is the pump in the cardiovascular system?

The heart

What is the conducting system in the cardiovascular system?

Blood Vessels

What is the fluid medium in the cardiovascular system?

Blood is a specialized fluid of what that contains what?
Specialized fluid of connective tissue which contains cells suspended in a fluid matrix
What does blood do?

Transports materials to and from cells

What materials does blood transport?

Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide



Immune System Components

Waste Products

What are the important functions of blood?

Transportation of dissolved substances

Regulation of pH & ions

Protection against toxins and pathogens

What dissolved substances does blood transport?




Waste Products

What does the blood regulate?


Body Temperature

Osmotic Pressure


What things/features of the blood protect against toxins and pathogens?


White Blood Cells


What is whole blood?

Plasma and formed elements

What is plasma?

A fluid consisting of water, dissolved plasma proteins, and other solutes

What percent water is plasma?


What percent solutes is plasma?

8.5% - primarily proteins
What are the formed elements are found in whole blood?
All cells and solids
Your blood volume is what % of your total body weight?

Adult males hold how many liters of blood?


Adult females hold how many liters of blood?


What is the average temperature of blood?

What is the average pH of blood?


The composition of your blood depends on?
Age, body and composition, sex
Plasma takes up what percent of blood volume?

More than 90% of plasma is what?


What are the extracellular fluids in plasma?

Interstitial Fluid (IF) and plasma

What do materials plasma and IF exchange across capillary walls?



Small Solutes

What are the plasma proteins?

Albumins (60%)

Globulins (35%)

Fibrinogen (4%)

What is serum?

Liquid part of a blood sample in which dissolved fibrinogen converts to solid fibrin
What are albumins?

60% of plasma

Transport substances such as fatty acids, thyroid hormones, and steroid hormones

What are globulins?

35% of plasma

Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins

Transport globulins (small molecules): hormone building proteins, metalloproteins, apolipoproteins (lipoproteins), and steroid-binding proteins

What are fibrinogens?

4% of plasma

Molecules that form clots and produce long, insoluble stands of fibrin

How do plasma proteins originate?

More than 90% made in liver

Antibodies made by plasma cells

Peptide hormones made by endocrine organs

What are the three types of elements formed in the blood?

Red blood Cells (RBC) or Erythrocytes

White Blood Cells (WBC) or Leukocytes

Platelets or Platelets (hehe, that was a joke)

What is the function of red blood cells?

Transport oxygen
What are the white blood cells part of?

The immune system
What are platelets involved in?

They are cell fragments involved in clotting
RBC make up 99.9% of what?

Blood's formed elements

What is hemoglobin?

The red pigment that gives whole blood its color

Binds and transports oxygen and carbon dioxide

What is Red Blood Cell Count?

The number of RBCs in 1 microliter of whole blood

What is the red blood cell count in men?

4.5-6.3 million

What is the red blood cell count in women?

4.2-5.5 million
What is the structure of RBCs?

Small, highly specialized discs

Thin in middle & thicker at the edge

What are the characteristics of erythrocytes?

No nucleus

Biconcave shape

No organelles

Contains hemoglobin

Glycolipids- blood groups

Carbonic anhydrase

Carbonic acid

What is carbonic anhydrase?

Enzyme that joins CO2 and H2O to form carbonic acid

What are the characteristics of carbonic acid?

Dissociates to bicarbonate; transports CO2
What are the three important effects of RBC shape on function?

1. High surface-to-volume ratio

2. Discs form stacks called rouleaux

3. Discs bend and flex entering small capillaries

Why is a high surface to volume ratio in RBCs important?
Allows them to quickly absorbs & releases oxygen
Why does RBC discs forming stacks called rouleaux matter?

Allows a smooth the flow through narrow blood vessels
Why does it matter that RBC discs bend and flex when entering small capillaries?

Allows a 7.8 micrometer RBC passes through 4 micrometer capillary
What is a hematocrit?
The ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood.
When put in a centrifuge what happens to blood?
Plasma, WBCs, and RBCs separate
What is the normal makeup of a blood sample when spun in a centrifuge?

Plasma- yellow clear liquid, 90% water & 10% solutes

55% plasma, the hematocrit portion 45%

What are some causes of low hematocrit?

Destruction of RBC: hemolytic & sickle cell anemia

Acute or chronic bleeding from the digestive tract (ulcers, polyps, colon cancer)

Damage bone marrow from toxins, radiation or chemo, infection or drugs

Kidney disease

Chronic inflammatory disease or conditions

What are some causes of high hematocrit?


Pulmonary disease

Congenital heart disease


Living at high altitudes

Genetic causes

What is the structure of the hemoglobin?

Globular protein

Four polypeptide chain

-Heme in each of the four chains

What does hemoglobin do?

Transports 23% of total carbon dioxide

-Combines with amino acids of globin

-Forms carbaminohemoglobin

Hemoglobin plays an important role in regulating what?

Blood pressure/flow

-Endothelial cells lining blood vessels secrete gaseous hormone Nitric Oxide (NO) binds to hemoglobin

-Some cases hemoglobin can release NO causing vasodilation to improve blood flow and oxygen delivery

How many molecules of hemoglobin are there in your body on average?

200-300 million
Men vs. Women hemoglobin content?

Men have more hemoglobin than women

-Men 14-16g per 100ml of blood

-Females 12-14g per 100ml of blood

Having less than 10g of hemoglobin in your body is an indicator of what?

What stimulates RBC production?

Erythropoiesis A.K.A. Hemopoiesis or Hematopoiesis

Occurs only in myeloid tissue (red bone marrow) in adults

Stem cells mature to become RBC

Negative feedback systems do what in RBC Production?
Regulates the total number of RBCs and platelets in circulation
What are hemocytoblasts?

Stem cells in myeloid tissue divide to produce

-Myeloid stem cells which become RBCs and some become WBCs

-Lymphoid stem cells which become lymphocytes

What are the stages of RBC maturation?

Myeloid Stem Cells




Mature RBC

Building red blood cells requires what?

Amino Acids


Vitamin B12, B6, and folic acid

What is Pernicious Anemia?

Low RBC production

Due to unavailability of Vitamin B12

What is Erythropoietin (EPO)?

Also called erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone

Secreted when oxygen in peripheral tissue is low (hypoxia)

Due to disease or high altitude

What do pluripotent stem cells produce?

Myeloid stem cells

-Give rise to red blood cells, platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils

Lymphoid stem cells

-Give rise to lymphocytes

Hemopoietic growth factors regulate what in the formation of RBC?

Differentiation and proliferation

Erythropoietin - RBCs

Thrombopoietin - Platelets

Erythropoiesis starts where?

In red bone marrow with proerythroblasts

What are the steps of erythropoiesis?

-Eject nucleus and becomes a reticulocyte

-Develops into mature RBC within 1-2 days

-Negative feedback balances production with destruction

-Controlled condition is amount of oxygen delivery to tissues

-Hypoxia stimulates release of erythropoietin

How many RBCs wear out per day?

1% of circulating RBCs

How many new RBCs are produced?

About 3 million per second
What are the functions of macrophages of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow on RBC formation?

Monitor RBCs

Engulf RBCs before membranes rupture (hemolyze)

Life span of RBCs?
About 120 days
What two organs recycle red blood cells?

Spleena nd liver

What breakdown products are recycled?

Globin's amino acids reused

Iron reused

Non-iron heme ends as yellow pigment urobilin in urine or brown pigment stercobilin in feces

Phagocytes break hemoglobin into what components?

Globular proteins to amino acids

Heme to biliverdin


What is hemoglobinuria?

Hemoglobin breakdown products in urine due to excess hemolysis in bloodstream
What is hematuria?

Whole red blood in urine due to kidney or tissue damage
What happens in the breakdown of biliverdin?

Biliverdin (green) is converted to bilirubin (yellow)

What is bilirubin?

Excreted by liver (bile)

Jaundice is caused by bilirubin buildup

Converted by intestinal bacteria to urobilins and stercobilins

What happens during iron recycling?

Iron removed from heme leaving biliverdin

To transport proteins (transferrin)

To storage proteins (ferritin and hemosiderin)

What are the characteristics of WBCs?

Also called leukocytes

Do not have hemoglobin

Have nuclei and other organelles

What are the functions of WBCs?

Defend against pathogens

Remove toxins and wastes

Attack abnormal cells

Where are most WBCs located?

Connective tissue proper

Lymphatic system organs

How many WBCs are found in blood in a healthy person?

5,000-10,000 per microliter
What are four characteristics of circulating WBCs?

Can migrate in & out of bloodstream

Have amoeboid movement

Attracted to chemical stimuli (positive chemotaxis)

Some are phagocytic (neutrophils, eosinophils, & monocytes)

What are the types of WBCs?






What are neutrophils?

Also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes

50-70% of circulating WBCs

What are the physical characteristics of neutrophils?

Pale cytoplasm granules with lysosomal enzymes & bactericides (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide)
What are the neutrophil actions?

Very active, first to attack bacteria

Engulf and digest pathogens


-Removes granules from cytoplasm

-Defensins (peptides from lysosomes) attack pathogen membranes

Release prostaglandins and leukotrienes

Forms pus

What are eosinophils?

A.K.A. acidophils

2-4% of circulating WBCs

Excrete toxic compounds

-Nitric oxide

-Cytotoxic enzymes

Sensitive to allergens

-Release histaminase, phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes and effective against certain parasitic worms

What are basophils?

Less than 1% of circulating WBCs

Accumulate in damaged tissue

Release histamine

-Dilates blood vessels

Release heparin

-Prevents blood clotting

Intensifies inflammatory reaction

Involved in hypersensitivity reactions (allergies)

What are monocytes?

2-8% of circulating WBCs

Are large and spherical

Enter peripheral tissues and become macrophages

Engulf large particles and pathogens

Secrete substances that attract immune system cells and fibroblasts to injured area

What are lymphocytes?

20-40% of circulating WBC

Larger than RBC

Migrate in and out of blood

Mostly in connective tissues and lymphoid organs

Are part of the bodys specific defense system

What are the three classes of lymphocytes?

T cells

B cells

Natural Killer (NK) cells

What do the T cells do?

Cell-mediated immunity

Attack foreign cells directly

What do the B cells do?

Humoral immunity

Differentiate into plasma cells

Synthesize antibodies

What do natural killer (NK) cells do?

Detect and destroy abnormal tissue cells (cancers)
What do the differential count and changes in WBC profiles do?

Detects changes in WBC populations

Infections, inflammation, and allergic reactions

What are three types of WBC disorders?




What is leukopenia?

Abnormally low WBC count

What is leukocytosis?

Abnormally high WBC count

What is leukemia?

Extremely high WBC count
In WBC production, what do myeloid stem cells do?

Produce all WBCs except lymphocytes
In WBC production, what do lymphoid stem cells do?

Lymphopoiesis- the production of lymphocytes
In WBC development, what cells develop in bone marrow?

WBCs, except monocytes

In WBC development, all WBCs except monocytes develop where?

In the bone marrow
In WBC development, what cells develop into macrophages in peripheral tissues?

In WBC development, how/where do monocytes develop?
Monocytes develop into macrophages in peripheral tissues
What is the life span of WBCs?

Most live only a few days
What is the life span of lymphocytes?

Live for months or years
How many leukocytosis are found in the bloodstream?

WBC count above 10,000/microliter (uL)

What is leukocytosis?
A normal protective response to invaders, strenuous exercise, anesthesia and surgery

What is leukopenia?

Low WBC count

Below 5,000/microliter (uL)

What is the function of leukocytosis?

Phagocytosis or immune responses
What do pathogens do?

Many WBCs leave the bloodstream

Emigration (formerly diapedesis) occurs

-Sticks to and then squeeze between endothelial cells

Precise signals vary for different types of WBCs

What are platelets?

Cell fragments involved in human clotting system

-Nonmammalian vertebrates have thrombocytes (nucleated cells)

How long do platelets live for?

9-12 days

What removes platelets from the bloodstream?

The spleen
2/3 platelets are reserved for what?

What is the amount of platelets reserved for emergencies?


What is the average amount of platelets?

150,000-500,000/ microliter

What is thrombocytopenia?

Abnormally low platelet count

What is thrombocytosis?

Abnormally high platelet count
What are the three functions of platelets?

Release important clotting chemicals

Temporarily patch damaged vessel walls

Reduce size of a break in vessel wall

Where does platelet production occur?

In bone marrow

This process is also called thrombocytopoiesis

What are megakaryocytes?

Giant cells in bone marrow

Manufactures platelets from cytoplasm

What are the steps in platelet formation?

Myeloid stem cells develop eventually into a megakaryocyte

Splinter into 2000-3000 fragments

Each fragment enclosed in a piece of plasma membrane

Become disc-shaped with many vesicles but no nucleus

What are the functions of platelets?

Help stop blood loss by forming platelet plug

Granules contain blood clot promoting chemicals

What is the lifespan of platelets?

5-9 days
What is hemostasis?

The cessation of bleeding

What are the three stages of hemostasis?

Vascular phase

Platelet phase

Coagulation phase

How does the vascular stage of hemostasis work?

A cut triggers a spasm that lasts 30 minutes

1. Endothelial cells contract and expose basement membrane to bloodstream

2. Endothelial cells

-release chemical factors ADP, tissue factor, and prostacyclin

-release local hormones, endothelins

-Stimulate smooth muscle contraction and cell division

3. Endothelial plasma membranes become "sticky"

-Seal off blood flow

How does the platelet phase of hemostasis work?

Begins 15 seconds after injury

Platelet adhesion (attachment)

-To sticky endothelial surfaces

-To basement membranes

-To exposed collagen fibers

Platelet aggregation (stick together)

-forms platelet plug that closes small breaks

Activated platelets release clotting compounds

What clotting compounds do activated platelets release in the platelet phase?

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

Thromboxane A2 and serotonin

Clotting factors

Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF)

Calcium Ions

What happens during the coagulation phase?

Begins 30 seconds or more after the injury

Blood clotting (coagulation)

-Cascade reaction

--Chain reactions of enzymes and proenzymes

-Form 3 pathways

-Convert circulating fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin

What are the 3 coagulation pathways

Extrinsic pathway

Intrinsic pathway

Common pathway

What is the extrinsic pathway?

Begins in the vessel wall

Outside bloodstream

Damaged cells release tissue factor (TF)

TF+ other compounds = enzyme complex

Activated Factor X

What is the intrinsic pathway?

Begins with circulating proenzymes

Within bloodstream

Activation of enzymes by collagen

Platelets release factors (e.g., PF-3)

Series of reactions activates Factor X

What is the common pathway?

Formation of prothrombinase

Prothrombinase converts prothrombinase into thrombin

Thrombin converts fibrinogen (soluble) into fibrin (insoluble) forming the threads of the clot

The common pathway is what to the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways?

The merge of the two
What are thrombin's two positive feedback effects?

Accelerates formation of prothrombinase

Thrombin activates platelets

When administered, coagulants bring a high risk of what?

Why do we use heparin and warfarin (Coumadin)?

Because it helps stop blood clots.

Coumadin interferes with vitamin K blocking synthesis of clotting proteins

What are agglutinogens?

Genetically determined assortment of antigens

Where are agglutinogens found?

On RBC surfaces

How is a blood group determined?

Based on presence or absence of various antigens

What are the most common way to identify blood types?
ABO & Rh
Characteristics of blood type A

Has only A antigens

Has anti-B antibodies

Characteristics of blood type B?

Has only B antigens

Has anti-A antibodies

Characteristics of blood type AB?

Universal recipient

Has neither anti-A or anti-B antibodies

Characteristics of blood type O?

Has neither A or B antigens

Universal donor

A person with type A blood can donate to whom?

A person with type A or AB blood

A person with type B blood can donate to whom?
A person with type B or AB blood

A person with type AB blood can donate to whom?

A person with AB only

A person with type O blood can donate to whom?


A person with type A blood can receive blood from whom?

A person with type A or O blood

A person with type B blood can receive blood from whom?

A person with type B or O blood

A person with type AB blood can receive blood from whom?


A person with type O blood can receive blood from whom?

Only a person with type O blood