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162 Cards in this Set

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What does the Cardiovascular System consist of?


A Pump


A Conduction System


A Fluid Medium

What is the pump in the cardiovascular system?

The heart

What is the conducting system in the cardiovascular system?

Blood Vessels

What is the fluid medium in the cardiovascular system?

Blood
Blood is a specialized fluid of what that contains what?
Specialized fluid of connective tissue which contains cells suspended in a fluid matrix
What does blood do?

Transports materials to and from cells

What materials does blood transport?


Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide


Nutrients


Hormones


Immune System Components


Waste Products

What are the important functions of blood?


Transportation of dissolved substances


Regulation of pH & ions


Protection against toxins and pathogens

What dissolved substances does blood transport?


Gases


Nutrients


Hormones


Waste Products

What does the blood regulate?

pH


Body Temperature


Osmotic Pressure


Ions


What things/features of the blood protect against toxins and pathogens?


Clotting


White Blood Cells


Proteins

What is whole blood?

Plasma and formed elements

What is plasma?

A fluid consisting of water, dissolved plasma proteins, and other solutes

What percent water is plasma?

91.5%

What percent solutes is plasma?

8.5% - primarily proteins
What are the formed elements are found in whole blood?
All cells and solids
Your blood volume is what % of your total body weight?

7-8%
Adult males hold how many liters of blood?

5-6

Adult females hold how many liters of blood?

4-5

What is the average temperature of blood?

100.4°F
What is the average pH of blood?

7.35-7.45

The composition of your blood depends on?
Age, body and composition, sex
Plasma takes up what percent of blood volume?

50-60%
More than 90% of plasma is what?

Water

What are the extracellular fluids in plasma?


Interstitial Fluid (IF) and plasma

What do materials plasma and IF exchange across capillary walls?


Water


Ions


Small Solutes

What are the plasma proteins?


Albumins (60%)


Globulins (35%)


Fibrinogen (4%)

What is serum?

Liquid part of a blood sample in which dissolved fibrinogen converts to solid fibrin
What are albumins?


60% of plasma


Transport substances such as fatty acids, thyroid hormones, and steroid hormones

What are globulins?


35% of plasma


Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins


Transport globulins (small molecules): hormone building proteins, metalloproteins, apolipoproteins (lipoproteins), and steroid-binding proteins

What are fibrinogens?


4% of plasma


Molecules that form clots and produce long, insoluble stands of fibrin

How do plasma proteins originate?


More than 90% made in liver


Antibodies made by plasma cells


Peptide hormones made by endocrine organs

What are the three types of elements formed in the blood?


Red blood Cells (RBC) or Erythrocytes


White Blood Cells (WBC) or Leukocytes


Platelets or Platelets (hehe, that was a joke)

What is the function of red blood cells?

Transport oxygen
What are the white blood cells part of?

The immune system
What are platelets involved in?

They are cell fragments involved in clotting
RBC make up 99.9% of what?

Blood's formed elements

What is hemoglobin?


The red pigment that gives whole blood its color


Binds and transports oxygen and carbon dioxide

What is Red Blood Cell Count?

The number of RBCs in 1 microliter of whole blood

What is the red blood cell count in men?

4.5-6.3 million

What is the red blood cell count in women?

4.2-5.5 million
What is the structure of RBCs?


Small, highly specialized discs


Thin in middle & thicker at the edge

What are the characteristics of erythrocytes?


No nucleus


Biconcave shape


No organelles


Contains hemoglobin


Glycolipids- blood groups


Carbonic anhydrase


Carbonic acid

What is carbonic anhydrase?

Enzyme that joins CO2 and H2O to form carbonic acid

What are the characteristics of carbonic acid?

Dissociates to bicarbonate; transports CO2
What are the three important effects of RBC shape on function?

1. High surface-to-volume ratio


2. Discs form stacks called rouleaux


3. Discs bend and flex entering small capillaries

Why is a high surface to volume ratio in RBCs important?
Allows them to quickly absorbs & releases oxygen
Why does RBC discs forming stacks called rouleaux matter?

Allows a smooth the flow through narrow blood vessels
Why does it matter that RBC discs bend and flex when entering small capillaries?

Allows a 7.8 micrometer RBC passes through 4 micrometer capillary
What is a hematocrit?
The ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood.
When put in a centrifuge what happens to blood?
Plasma, WBCs, and RBCs separate
What is the normal makeup of a blood sample when spun in a centrifuge?


Plasma- yellow clear liquid, 90% water & 10% solutes


55% plasma, the hematocrit portion 45%

What are some causes of low hematocrit?


Destruction of RBC: hemolytic & sickle cell anemia


Acute or chronic bleeding from the digestive tract (ulcers, polyps, colon cancer)


Damage bone marrow from toxins, radiation or chemo, infection or drugs


Kidney disease


Chronic inflammatory disease or conditions

What are some causes of high hematocrit?


Dehydration


Pulmonary disease


Congenital heart disease


Smoking


Living at high altitudes


Genetic causes

What is the structure of the hemoglobin?


Globular protein


Four polypeptide chain


-Heme in each of the four chains

What does hemoglobin do?


Transports 23% of total carbon dioxide


-Combines with amino acids of globin


-Forms carbaminohemoglobin

Hemoglobin plays an important role in regulating what?


Blood pressure/flow


-Endothelial cells lining blood vessels secrete gaseous hormone Nitric Oxide (NO) binds to hemoglobin


-Some cases hemoglobin can release NO causing vasodilation to improve blood flow and oxygen delivery

How many molecules of hemoglobin are there in your body on average?

200-300 million
Men vs. Women hemoglobin content?


Men have more hemoglobin than women


-Men 14-16g per 100ml of blood


-Females 12-14g per 100ml of blood

Having less than 10g of hemoglobin in your body is an indicator of what?


Anemia
What stimulates RBC production?


Erythropoiesis A.K.A. Hemopoiesis or Hematopoiesis


Occurs only in myeloid tissue (red bone marrow) in adults


Stem cells mature to become RBC

Negative feedback systems do what in RBC Production?
Regulates the total number of RBCs and platelets in circulation
What are hemocytoblasts?


Stem cells in myeloid tissue divide to produce


-Myeloid stem cells which become RBCs and some become WBCs


-Lymphoid stem cells which become lymphocytes

What are the stages of RBC maturation?


Myeloid Stem Cells


Proerythroblasts


Erythroblasts


Reticulocyte


Mature RBC

Building red blood cells requires what?


Amino Acids


Iron


Vitamin B12, B6, and folic acid

What is Pernicious Anemia?


Low RBC production


Due to unavailability of Vitamin B12

What is Erythropoietin (EPO)?


Also called erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone


Secreted when oxygen in peripheral tissue is low (hypoxia)


Due to disease or high altitude

What do pluripotent stem cells produce?


Myeloid stem cells


-Give rise to red blood cells, platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils


Lymphoid stem cells


-Give rise to lymphocytes

Hemopoietic growth factors regulate what in the formation of RBC?


Differentiation and proliferation


Erythropoietin - RBCs


Thrombopoietin - Platelets

Erythropoiesis starts where?

In red bone marrow with proerythroblasts

What are the steps of erythropoiesis?

-Eject nucleus and becomes a reticulocyte


-Develops into mature RBC within 1-2 days


-Negative feedback balances production with destruction


-Controlled condition is amount of oxygen delivery to tissues


-Hypoxia stimulates release of erythropoietin

How many RBCs wear out per day?


1% of circulating RBCs

How many new RBCs are produced?

About 3 million per second
What are the functions of macrophages of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow on RBC formation?


Monitor RBCs


Engulf RBCs before membranes rupture (hemolyze)

Life span of RBCs?
About 120 days
What two organs recycle red blood cells?

Spleena nd liver

What breakdown products are recycled?


Globin's amino acids reused


Iron reused


Non-iron heme ends as yellow pigment urobilin in urine or brown pigment stercobilin in feces

Phagocytes break hemoglobin into what components?


Globular proteins to amino acids


Heme to biliverdin


Iron

What is hemoglobinuria?

Hemoglobin breakdown products in urine due to excess hemolysis in bloodstream
What is hematuria?

Whole red blood in urine due to kidney or tissue damage
What happens in the breakdown of biliverdin?

Biliverdin (green) is converted to bilirubin (yellow)

What is bilirubin?


Excreted by liver (bile)


Jaundice is caused by bilirubin buildup


Converted by intestinal bacteria to urobilins and stercobilins

What happens during iron recycling?


Iron removed from heme leaving biliverdin


To transport proteins (transferrin)


To storage proteins (ferritin and hemosiderin)

What are the characteristics of WBCs?


Also called leukocytes


Do not have hemoglobin


Have nuclei and other organelles

What are the functions of WBCs?

Defend against pathogens


Remove toxins and wastes


Attack abnormal cells

Where are most WBCs located?


Connective tissue proper


Lymphatic system organs

How many WBCs are found in blood in a healthy person?

5,000-10,000 per microliter
What are four characteristics of circulating WBCs?


Can migrate in & out of bloodstream


Have amoeboid movement


Attracted to chemical stimuli (positive chemotaxis)


Some are phagocytic (neutrophils, eosinophils, & monocytes)

What are the types of WBCs?


Neutrophils


Eosinophils


Basophils


Monocytes


Lymphocytes

What are neutrophils?


Also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes


50-70% of circulating WBCs

What are the physical characteristics of neutrophils?

Pale cytoplasm granules with lysosomal enzymes & bactericides (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide)
What are the neutrophil actions?

Very active, first to attack bacteria


Engulf and digest pathogens


Degranulation


-Removes granules from cytoplasm


-Defensins (peptides from lysosomes) attack pathogen membranes


Release prostaglandins and leukotrienes


Forms pus

What are eosinophils?

A.K.A. acidophils


2-4% of circulating WBCs


Excrete toxic compounds


-Nitric oxide


-Cytotoxic enzymes


Sensitive to allergens


-Release histaminase, phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes and effective against certain parasitic worms

What are basophils?

Less than 1% of circulating WBCs


Accumulate in damaged tissue


Release histamine


-Dilates blood vessels


Release heparin


-Prevents blood clotting


Intensifies inflammatory reaction


Involved in hypersensitivity reactions (allergies)

What are monocytes?

2-8% of circulating WBCs


Are large and spherical


Enter peripheral tissues and become macrophages


Engulf large particles and pathogens


Secrete substances that attract immune system cells and fibroblasts to injured area

What are lymphocytes?


20-40% of circulating WBC


Larger than RBC


Migrate in and out of blood


Mostly in connective tissues and lymphoid organs


Are part of the bodys specific defense system

What are the three classes of lymphocytes?


T cells


B cells


Natural Killer (NK) cells

What do the T cells do?


Cell-mediated immunity


Attack foreign cells directly

What do the B cells do?

Humoral immunity


Differentiate into plasma cells


Synthesize antibodies

What do natural killer (NK) cells do?

Detect and destroy abnormal tissue cells (cancers)
What do the differential count and changes in WBC profiles do?


Detects changes in WBC populations


Infections, inflammation, and allergic reactions

What are three types of WBC disorders?


Leukopenia


Leukocytosis


Leukemia


What is leukopenia?

Abnormally low WBC count

What is leukocytosis?

Abnormally high WBC count

What is leukemia?

Extremely high WBC count
In WBC production, what do myeloid stem cells do?

Produce all WBCs except lymphocytes
In WBC production, what do lymphoid stem cells do?

Lymphopoiesis- the production of lymphocytes
In WBC development, what cells develop in bone marrow?

WBCs, except monocytes

In WBC development, all WBCs except monocytes develop where?

In the bone marrow
In WBC development, what cells develop into macrophages in peripheral tissues?

Monocytes
In WBC development, how/where do monocytes develop?
Monocytes develop into macrophages in peripheral tissues
What is the life span of WBCs?

Most live only a few days
What is the life span of lymphocytes?

Live for months or years
How many leukocytosis are found in the bloodstream?


WBC count above 10,000/microliter (uL)



What is leukocytosis?
A normal protective response to invaders, strenuous exercise, anesthesia and surgery

What is leukopenia?


Low WBC count


Below 5,000/microliter (uL)

What is the function of leukocytosis?

Phagocytosis or immune responses
What do pathogens do?

Many WBCs leave the bloodstream


Emigration (formerly diapedesis) occurs


-Sticks to and then squeeze between endothelial cells


Precise signals vary for different types of WBCs

What are platelets?


Cell fragments involved in human clotting system


-Nonmammalian vertebrates have thrombocytes (nucleated cells)

How long do platelets live for?

9-12 days

What removes platelets from the bloodstream?

The spleen
2/3 platelets are reserved for what?

Emergencies
What is the amount of platelets reserved for emergencies?

2/3

What is the average amount of platelets?


150,000-500,000/ microliter

What is thrombocytopenia?

Abnormally low platelet count

What is thrombocytosis?

Abnormally high platelet count
What are the three functions of platelets?


Release important clotting chemicals


Temporarily patch damaged vessel walls


Reduce size of a break in vessel wall

Where does platelet production occur?

In bone marrow


This process is also called thrombocytopoiesis

What are megakaryocytes?


Giant cells in bone marrow


Manufactures platelets from cytoplasm

What are the steps in platelet formation?


Myeloid stem cells develop eventually into a megakaryocyte


Splinter into 2000-3000 fragments


Each fragment enclosed in a piece of plasma membrane


Become disc-shaped with many vesicles but no nucleus

What are the functions of platelets?


Help stop blood loss by forming platelet plug


Granules contain blood clot promoting chemicals


What is the lifespan of platelets?

5-9 days
What is hemostasis?

The cessation of bleeding

What are the three stages of hemostasis?


Vascular phase


Platelet phase


Coagulation phase

How does the vascular stage of hemostasis work?


A cut triggers a spasm that lasts 30 minutes


1. Endothelial cells contract and expose basement membrane to bloodstream


2. Endothelial cells


-release chemical factors ADP, tissue factor, and prostacyclin


-release local hormones, endothelins


-Stimulate smooth muscle contraction and cell division


3. Endothelial plasma membranes become "sticky"


-Seal off blood flow

How does the platelet phase of hemostasis work?


Begins 15 seconds after injury


Platelet adhesion (attachment)


-To sticky endothelial surfaces


-To basement membranes


-To exposed collagen fibers


Platelet aggregation (stick together)


-forms platelet plug that closes small breaks


Activated platelets release clotting compounds

What clotting compounds do activated platelets release in the platelet phase?


Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)


Thromboxane A2 and serotonin


Clotting factors


Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF)


Calcium Ions

What happens during the coagulation phase?


Begins 30 seconds or more after the injury


Blood clotting (coagulation)


-Cascade reaction


--Chain reactions of enzymes and proenzymes


-Form 3 pathways


-Convert circulating fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin

What are the 3 coagulation pathways


Extrinsic pathway


Intrinsic pathway


Common pathway

What is the extrinsic pathway?


Begins in the vessel wall


Outside bloodstream


Damaged cells release tissue factor (TF)


TF+ other compounds = enzyme complex


Activated Factor X

What is the intrinsic pathway?


Begins with circulating proenzymes


Within bloodstream


Activation of enzymes by collagen


Platelets release factors (e.g., PF-3)


Series of reactions activates Factor X

What is the common pathway?

Formation of prothrombinase


Prothrombinase converts prothrombinase into thrombin


Thrombin converts fibrinogen (soluble) into fibrin (insoluble) forming the threads of the clot

The common pathway is what to the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways?

The merge of the two
What are thrombin's two positive feedback effects?


Accelerates formation of prothrombinase


Thrombin activates platelets

When administered, coagulants bring a high risk of what?

Clots
Why do we use heparin and warfarin (Coumadin)?


Because it helps stop blood clots.


Coumadin interferes with vitamin K blocking synthesis of clotting proteins

What are agglutinogens?

Genetically determined assortment of antigens

Where are agglutinogens found?

On RBC surfaces

How is a blood group determined?

Based on presence or absence of various antigens

What are the most common way to identify blood types?
ABO & Rh
Characteristics of blood type A


Has only A antigens


Has anti-B antibodies

Characteristics of blood type B?


Has only B antigens


Has anti-A antibodies

Characteristics of blood type AB?


Universal recipient


Has neither anti-A or anti-B antibodies

Characteristics of blood type O?


Has neither A or B antigens


Universal donor

A person with type A blood can donate to whom?


A person with type A or AB blood

A person with type B blood can donate to whom?
A person with type B or AB blood

A person with type AB blood can donate to whom?

A person with AB only

A person with type O blood can donate to whom?

Anyone

A person with type A blood can receive blood from whom?

A person with type A or O blood

A person with type B blood can receive blood from whom?

A person with type B or O blood

A person with type AB blood can receive blood from whom?

Anyone

A person with type O blood can receive blood from whom?

Only a person with type O blood