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82 Cards in this Set

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formed elements
blood cells and cell fragments that are suspended in the plasma
what two types of cells create the formed elements?
myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells.
whole blood
plasma and formed elements.
What is the ratio of plasma to formed elements in the blood
46-63% plasma
37 - 54% formed elements

more plasma
What is the ratio of red to [white blood cells + platelets] in the formed elements
99% RBCs 1% everything else.
is blood temperature typically above or below body temp?
slightly above
what is the pH range of blood
7.35 to 7.45

(slightly alkaline)

(most likely bicarbonate)
what is the main component of plasma?
water (92%)
What are the (2) primary differences between interstitial fluid and plasma?
1.) level of respiratory gasses
2.) concentration and types of dissolved proteins (5x as much in plasma as IF)
what three types of proteins constitute 99% of the plasma proteins?
albumins, globulins, fibrinogens
which type of plasma protein is the primary contributor to colloid osmotic pressure of plasma
Albumin - it makes of 60% of the plasma proteins.
Which type of plasma protein includes antibodies, hormone binding proteins, apolipoproteins, steroid binding proteins, and metalloproteins?
globulins 35% of the plasma proteins.
which type of plasma protein functions in clotting?
fibrinogen (4% of plasma proteins.)
the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin removes the clotting proteins and leaves behind what substance?
from what system are plasma cells derived?
lymphoid system (lymphocytes)
from what cells are antibodies derived?
plasma cells from the lymphoid system.
What type of cell accounts for one-third of the cells in the human body?
Red Blood Cells.
percentage of whole blood volume consisting of formed elements
What are the typical hematocrit levels of males and females respectively?
46 males (40-54)

42 females (37-47)
Why do males have more hematocrit than females?
androgens stimulate red blood cell production.
The biconcave shape of the Red blood cells leads to what 3 important characteristics?
1.) increased surface area to volume ratio

2.) enables RBCs to stack and flow through narrow vessels

3.) Enables RBCs to bend and flex
What is the normal levels of hemoglobin in males and females respectively?
males: 14-18g/dL

females 12-16 g/dL
What color is blood rich in deoxyhemoglobin?
dark red or burgundy. (NOT GREEN)
which binds hemoglobin more strongly; fetal or adult hemoglobin?
fetal hemoglobin.
Using hydroxyurea or butyrate to induce formation of fetal hemoglobin over adult hemoglobin is used to treat what (2) illnesses?
sickle cell anemia and thalassemia
low hematocrit or Hb levels. causes reduced oxygen delivery to the tissues.
what is the life span of a typical RBC? Why is this so short?
120 days.

The membrane does not have the machinery to regenerate itself or repair damage. Wear and tear therefore causes it to rupture.
abnormally large number of hemoglobin molecules breaking down in the bloodstream leads to what condition?
hemoglobinuria - red or brown urine
The presence of intact RBCs int he blood leads to what condition and is a sign of what other condition?
hematuria -signifies kidney damage or damage to vessels along the urinary tract.
when heme units are broken down and their iron is removed what is formed?
biliverdin -green organic compound which forms bruises.
how is billiverden removed from the body?
it is converted to billirubin and released into the blood stream where it binds to albumin and transported to the liver for excretion.
what occurs when the liver is unable to discard bilirubin at a quick enough rate (or not at all?)
During early development, what organs are the major sites of hematogenesis?
Liver and Spleen
Where does erythropoesis occur?
Red Bone Marrow
How much of the human blood population is reticulocytes?
.8% levels over 3% are a sign of hemmoraging.
List 4 conditions where EPO is released.
1.) Anemia
2.) Reduced kidney blood flow
3.) Reduced 02 in air in lungs (altitude or disease)
4.) Damage to respiratory surfaces
To be Rh+ means you have which antigen?
D antigen
surface antigens on blood cells
attack the antigens on foreign RBCs
When antibodies bind to surface antigens on RBCs
What is the msot common blood type?
O (except in australian aborigines)
Can Rh Antibodies cross into the fetal blood stream?
Yes (but A and B cannot)
Can blood antibodies (A and B) cross into the fetal blood stream?
No, but Rh antibodies can.
What doe White blood cells have that RBCs dont?

What do RBCs have that WBCs dont?
nucleus and organelles

WBCs do not have hemoglobin.
List the 4 characteristics of all migrating White Blood Cells:
1.) All can migrate out of the bloodstream

2.) Capable of Amoeboid movement

3.) Attracted to chemical stimuli

4.) Monocytes, Eosinophils, and Neutrophils are capable of Phagocytosis
List the 4 types of White Blood Cells.
Basophils, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils
What two types of White blood cells are referred to as "microphages"?
neutrophils and eosinophils
-50-70% of WBC population
-granules are chemically neutral so they are hard to stain
-Highly mobile (first to arrive)
-digest marked bacteria
-staindarkly with eosin a red dye
-attack marked objects via exocytosis of toxic compounds
-multiply during allergic reactions
- stain darkly with basic dyes
- smaller than eosinophils or neurophils
- discharge granules containing histamine and heparin
dilates blood vessels. released by basophils
prevents blood clotting, released by basophils.
-very large
- draw fibrocytes to region of injury
- aggresive phagocytes.

monocyte is a monster!
20-30% of WBC population
Lsit the 3 types of circulating lymphocytes.
1.) T cells
2.) B cells
3.) Natural Killer cells
T- Cells
enter peripheral tissues and attack directly, or regulates other lymphocytes
B cells
produces antibodies. responsible for humoral immunity.

Activated B cells differentiate into plasma cells
Natural Killer cells
immune surveillance. Detect and destroy abnormal tissue cells.
What are the 3 functions of Platelets?
1.) Release of clotting chemicals

2.) Forms temporary patch in the wall of damaged blood vessels.

3.) Active contraction after clot formation.
platelet production
enormous cells which manufacture structural proteins enzymes and membranes.
The rate of megakaryocyte activity and platelet formation is stimulated by what 3 substances?
1.) thrombopoetin (produced in kidneys)
2.) interleukin-6 (IL-6)
3.) multi-CSF
Colony Stimulating Factor
hormones which regulate WBC populations.
List the four colony stimulating factors and their corresponding target.
M-CSF - monocytes
G-CSF - granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
GM-CSF - granulocytes and monocytes
Multi-CSF - granulocytes, monocytes, platelets and RBCs
how do platelets differ between mamallian and nonmamallian cells.
In non mamalian cells they are nucleated and called thrombocytes.
low platelet count (80,000/ul)
platelet production
Differential count
number of each type of WBC in a sample of 100.
Granulocytes pass through 3 developmental stages before becoming a mature WBC. List them.
1.) Blast cell
2.) Myelocytes
3.) Band Cells.
What organs are lympocytes produced in besides bone marrow?


lymph nodes
Enzyme precursors that convert to functional form via signalling.

contribute to enzyme cascades.
Extrinsic pathway:

list the steps up to the start of common pathway
1.) Factor III released by damaged endothelial cells

2.) Factor III combines with calcium and Factor VII

3.) This complex activates Fator X
intrinsic pathway:

list the steps up to the start of common pathway
1.) activation of Factor XII
2.) Platelet factor 3 is released by aggrigating platelets.
3.) Clotting factors VIII and IX combine with Ca2+
4.) Complex activates Factor X
List the steps of the common pathway:
1.) Factor X activates prothrombinase

2.) prthrombinase converts prothrombin to thrombin.

3.) Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
Comapre the extrinsic pathway with the intrinsic pathway
Extrinsic is shorter and faster than the intrinsic pathway.

the exteinsic is an initial response which is made permanent by the intrinsic pathway.
How does thrombin stimulate blood clotting?
1.) stimulates the formation of tissue factor (Factor III) (extrinsic)

2.) stimulates the release of PF-3 by platelets. (intrinsic)

Positive feedback loop.
List 5 substances that deactivate or remove clotting factors.
Anticoagulants (antithrombin-III)
Protein C
alpha-2 macroglobin
Why are calcium ions and vitamin K neccesary for clotting
all three pathways require calcium ions.

vitamin K must be present for the liver to synthesize four of the clotting factors.
Clot retraction
occurs over a period of 30-60 minutes

1.) pulls the torn edges of the vessel closr together

2.) reduces the size of the damaged area making it easier for fibrocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells to complete repairs.
clot dissolving after repairs
what two enzymes activate plasminogen
thrombin and tissue plasminogen activator
activated plasminogen makes what?
plasmin: which digests the fbrin strands