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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Brain – Divided into 4 major areas:

1. Cerebral Hemispheres

2. Diencephalon

3. Brainstem

4. Cerebellum


-Hollow cavities within the brain

-Filled with cerebrospinal fluid

-Lined by Ependymal cells

2 Lateral Ventricles

Separated by thin membrane septum pellucidum

Intervertebral Foramen

Third Ventricle

Cerebral Aqueduct

Fourth Ventricle:

2 Lateral Apertures

1 Central Aperture– Central canal of cord

2 Cerebral Hemispheres

-Elevated ridges called Gyri

-Shallow grooves called Sulci

Longitudinal Fissure

Separates hemispheres

Transverse Cerebral Fissure

Separates hemispheres from cerebellum

Cerebral (Hemispheres) divided into 5 Lobes:

1. Frontal

(1 & 2) Separated byCentral Sulcus

2. Parietal

(1-3) Separated by LateralSulcus

3. Temporal

4. Occipital

5. Insula

Cerebral Cortex (Grey Matter) Outer

*The executive suite of the nervous system…whereour conscious mind is found!

Cerebral Cortex (Grey Matter) Outer enables:

-Awareness of ourselves and our sensations




-Initiation of voluntary movements

Grey Matter iscomposed of:

-Neuron Cell Bodies


-Associated Glia & blood vessels

*No fiber tracts!

Cerebral Cortex Contains 3 Kinds of Functional Areas:

-Each hemisphereis associated with those functions on the contralateral side of body

1. Motor

2. Sensory

3. Association

No functional area acts alone.

Conscious behavior involves the whole cortex.

Motor Areas in Rear of Frontal Lobe:

Primary Motor(Somatic)

Premotor Cortex

Broca’s Area

Frontal Eye Field

Primary Motor (Somatic)

- Conscious control of precise, skilled, voluntary movements of skeletal myos

- This area is served by massive axons that make up the cerebral spinal tract of cord (aka) Pyramidal Tracts

Premotor Cortex

-Helps plan movements, performing skilled motor activity

-Selects myos & sequence of their movements….like playing piano

Broca’s Area

-Considered a motor speech area

-Directs the myos involved in speech

Frontal Eye Field

-Controls voluntary movement of eyes

Sensory Areas:

1. Primary Somatosensory Cortex

2. Somatosensory Association Cortex

3. Visual Areas Occipital Lobe

4. Auditory Areas

5. Vestibular Cortex

6. Olfactory Cortex

7. Gustatory

8. Visceral Sensory Area Insula

Primary Somatosensory Cortex

-Receives info from skin, myos, tendons, joints for spatial discrimination

Somatosensory Association Cortex

-Integrates sensory inputs relayed to it from primary somato (temp., pressure, etc) to “understand” what we feel

Visual Areas Occipital Lobe

Complex visual processing, rear of hemispheres, spatialrelationships, object location

Auditory Areas

-Primary auditory cortex in this area….of the temporal lobe

Vestibular Cortex

-Vestibular nuclei receive info from inner ear vestibular apparatus to help maintain balance & posture (Insula)

Olfactory Cortex


-Medial temporal lobe




Visceral Sensory Area Insula

-Responsible for visceral senses like full bladder orbursting lungs when holding breath too long

Prefrontal Cortex

The most complicated cortical region

Involved in intellect, complex learning, abilities,cognition, recall, personality

White Matter

-Deep into cortical gray

-Responsible for communication between cerebral areas &lower CNS




The relay station for info coming into the cerebral cortex

-Almost all sensory pass through here

-It sorts out and edits impulses


-Controls autonomic N.S.

-Initiates physical responses to emotions

-Regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance &thirst

-Controls endocrine system via pituitary


-Pineal gland is part of it

-Secretes melatonin - sleep inducer

Brain Stem

1. Midbrain

2. Pons - Contains nuclei of cranial N.S. V, VI, VII -Helps medulla maintain breathing rhythm

3. Medulla Oblongata-Maintains 3 important visceral functions

-Vital centers of control of: heart rate, respiration, blood pressure


-The deep white matter called Arbor Vitae

-The Cerebellum “fine tunes” motor activity

-Makes sure of smooth, coordinated movements

-Loss of function would cause loss of myo tone…clumsy, unsure movements

Limbic System

-Amygdaloid body

-Cingulate gyrus



*”The” emotional or affective (feelings) part of thebrain

Reticular Formation(aka) Reticular Activating System

-Regulates activities that control state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex

-Also filters sensory input

-Repetitive, familiar, or weak signals are filtered out… if not, the sensory input would overload and drive us crazy

*Suppressed by alcohol, sleeping pills, tranquilizers


3 Connective Tissue membranes that lie external to the braintissue

Dura Mater

-2 layers: (Fused everywhere except Dural Venous Sinous

Periosteal Layer – one with the skull periosteum

Meningeal – deeper layer

Arachnoid Mater

-Deep to dura

-Under it is subarachnoid space

-Arachnoid villi protrude into superior sagittal sinous

Pia Mater

-Deepest meninge

CSF CerebrospinalFluid

-Reduces brain weight

-Makes brain buoyant

-Protects from trauma

-Nourishes brain tissue

Choroid Plexus

-Ependymal cells & capillaries

-Filters blood from brain to CSF in ventricles & subarachnoid space

-Drains into arachnoid villi -> Dural Venous Sinous

-The filtered blood contains no RBC’s

-From Dural Venous Sinous –> Jugular vein to heart

Blood-Brain Barrier

-Helps maintain a stable environment for brain tissue

* The neurons would fire uncontrollably if exposed to extracellular concentrations of hormones, amino acids, ions

-Provided by: Endothelium of capillary walls, Thick Basel lamina surrounding capillaries, Feet of astrocytes

-It is effective against metabolic waste products like urea, and others that would damage brain tissue

PVO – Paraventricular Organs

(Near the Ventricles 3 & 4)

-Are without Blood-Brain Barrier

-They are exposed to all blood to give brain idea ofenvironmental conditions

Spinal Cord

-Protected by bone (spine)

-3 Meninges, but Dura not attached to bone

Epidural space

surrounds Dura.

-Filled with fat cells & blood vessels

Foramen Magnum ->L2 Area

At L2 is Conus Medullaris, and extending from Conus M. arenerves, called Cauda Equina

Gray Matter

Dorsal Horn ----sensory

Ventral Horn ----cell bodies for somatic motor

Gray Commissure

Lateral Horns----in thorax & superior lumbar spine; cell bodies for visceral motor (ANS)

White Matter Tracts



(white due to myelination)

Ascending (sensory) pathwaysto the brain:

3 Neuron Progression:

1. 1st order Neurons fromreceptors to cord or stem (The cell bodies reside in thedorsal root ganglion)

2. 2nd order to thalamus ofcerebellum

3. 3rd order tocortex

Spinocerebellar Tract

Carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum


Awareness of our place in space. Receptors arein joints, tendons, ligaments, etc

Descending (motor)Tracts:

Upper Motor Neurons – Pyramidal cells in the motor cortex [brain]

Lower Motor Neurons – Ventral horn motor neurons to skeletal myos [below brain]

Spinal cord trauma

Trauma in cervical region; all limbs are affected

*If C6 or below: whole arm

*If C5: still some movement

*If T1-L1: just lower limbs affected