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140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System
Composed of the brain and spinal cord
Surface anatomy of the brain
-cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brain stem
A) Telencephalon
B) Diencephalon
C) Mesencephalon
D) Metencephalon
E) Myelencephalon
A) Cerebrum
B) Diencephalon
C) Brain Stem; midbrain
D) Brain Stem; pons
E) Cerebellum
F) Brain Stem; Medulla onlongata
H) Spinal Cord
Lateral Ventricles
Third Ventricles
Cerebral aqueduct
A) Lateral Ventricles
B) Third Ventricles
C) Cerberal Ventricles
D) Fourth Ventricles
E) Central Canal
Spinal Cord
External to which is white matter composed of myelinated fiber tracts
-Similar to spinal cord but with more grey matter
-Cerebellum has gray matter in nuclei
A) Inner gray matter
B) Outer white matter
C) Gray Matter
D) Central Cavity
E) Region of cerebellum
F) Brain Stem
G) Spinal Cord
Ventricles of the Brain
Arise from the expansion of the lumen of the neural tube
The ventricles are (3)
-The paired C-shaped lateral ventricles
-The third ventricles found in the diencephalon
-The fourth ventricle found in the hindbrain dorsal to the pons
A) Lateral ventricle
B) Septum pellucidum
C) Third ventricle
D) Cerebral aqueduct
E) Fouth Ventricle
F) Central Canal
G) Anterior Horn
H) Interventricular foramen
I) Inferior horn
J) Lateral Seperture
The cerebral hemipsheres contain ______ and shallow ______
Ridges (gyri)
Grooves (sulci)
Deep groves in the cerberal hemispheres
Cerebral hemipsheres are seperatted by the
longitudinal fissure
The Cerebral hemipsheres have three basic regions
Cortex, white matter and basal nuclei
Deep sulci divide the hemipsheres into five lobes
Central Suculus
Seperates the frontal and parietal lobes
Parieto-occipital suculus
Seperates the parietal and occipital lobes
Lateral sulcus
seperates the parietal and temporal lobes
What two structures border the central sulcus
precentral and postcentral gyri
Cerebral cortex
superficial gray matter, that accounts for 40% of the mass of the brain. It enables sensation, communication, memory, understanding and voluntary movements
Each hemisphere in the cerebral cortex acts
contralaterally: controls opposite sides of the body
What is different about the hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
they are not equal in function
Motor Areas
control voluntary movement
Sensory areas
conscious awareness of sensation
Association areas
integrate diverse information
Primary motor cortex
loacted in the precentral gyrun
What is the primary motor cortex composed of
pyramidal cells whos axons make up the corticospinal tracts
What does the primary motor complex allow
conscious control of precise, skilles, voluntary movements
Motor homunclulus
Caricature of relative amounts of cortical tissue devoted to each motor function
premotor cortex
located anterior to the precentral gyrus
What does premotor cortex control
learned, repititous, and patterned motor skills
Brocas Area
-Located anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area
-present in one hemisphere
What role does brocas area play
-motor speech area that directs muscles of the tongue
-activates as one prepares to speak
Frontal eye field
Located anterior to the premotor cortex and superior to brocas area
What does the frontal eye field control
voluntary eye movement
What are the sensory areas of the brain
-Primary somatosensory cortex
-Somatosensory association cortex
-Visual and auditory areas
-Olifactory, gustatory, and vestibular cortices
Primary somatosensory cortex
Located in the postcentral gyrus
What role does the primary somatosensory cortex play
-recieves information from the skin and skeletal muscles
-exhibits spatial discrimination
Somatosensory homunculus
-caricature of relative amounts of cortical tissue devoted to each sensory function
Somatosensory association cortex
located posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex
What is the role of the somatosensory association cortex
Intergrates sensory information
Primary visual (striate) cortex
-seen on the extreme posterior tip of the occipital lobe
-Recieves visual information from the retinas
Visual association area
-Surrounds the primary visual cortex
-Interprets visual stimuli (color, form, and movement)
Primary Auditory cortex
-Located at the superior margin of the temporal lobe
-Revieves information related to pitch, rythm, and loudness
Auditory association area
-Located posterior to the primary auditory cortex
-Stores memories of sounds and permits preception of sounds
Where is wernickes area located
Auditory association area
What did carl wernicke describe about the brain
That people who suffer neurophysiological damage to this area are unable to understand the content word while listening, and unable to produce meaningful sentence; there speech has grammatical structures but no meaning
What are the association areas (4)
-prefrontal cortex
-Language areas
-General interpretation area
-Visceral association
Prefrontal cortex
-in the anterior portion of the frontal lobe
-Involved with intellect, cognition, recall, and personality
The prefrontal cortex is necessary for
judgement, reasoning, persistance, and conscience
Which cortex is linked to the limbic system
Prefrontal cortex
Where are the language areas located
-large areas surrounding the left lateral sulcus
Wernickes area (language area)
involved in sounding out unfamilary words
Brocas area (language area)
Speech preperation and production
Lateral prefrontal cortex (language area)
Language comprehension and word analysis
Lateral and ventral temporal lobe (language area)
coordinate auditory and visual aspects of language
General Interpretation Area
-Found in one hemisphere, usually the left
-Integrates incoming signals into a single though
-Involved in processing spatial relationships
A) Motor Cortex
B) Wernickes area
C) Angular gyrus
D) Visual cortex
E) Auditory Cortex
F) Brocas Area
each hemisphere has the abilities not shared with its partner
Cerebral dominance
-designates the hemisphere dominant for language
Left Hemisphere
-Controls language, math and logic
Right Hemisphere
-controls visual-spatial skills, emotion, and artistic skills
Cerebral White Matter
consists of deep myelinated fibers and their tracts
Cerebral white matter is responsible for the communication between
The cerebral cortex and lower CNS center, and areas of the cerebrum
Connect corresponding gray areas of the two hemispheres
Basal Nuclei/ganglia
Masses of gray matter found deep within the cortical white matter
The corpus stratum is composed of three parts
-Caudate nucleus
-Lentiform nucleus
-Fibers of internal capsule
Lentiform Nucleus
Composed of the putamen and the globus pallidus
What are the functions of Basal Nuclei (4)
-Influence muscualr activity
-Regulate attention and cognition
-Regulare intensity of slow or sterotyped movements
-Inhibit antagonistic and unnecessary movement
-Central core of the forebrain
What three paired structures does the diencephalon consists of
What structure enlcoses the third ventricle
Paired, egg-shaped masses that form the superolateral walls of the third ventricle
The thalamus is connected to the midline by the
intermediate mass
All inputs ascending to the cerebral cortex pass through the (TQ)
Thalamus plays a key role in (5)
mediating sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, learning, and memory
Located below the thalamus, it caps the brainsetm and forms the inferolateral walls of the third ventricle
Mammillary Bodies
small, paired nuclei bulging anteriorly from the hypothalamus
The mammillary bodies are the relay station for (TQ)
Olfactory pathways
Stalk of the hypothalamus; connects to the pituitary gland
What is the functions of the hypothalamic function
-blood pressue
-rate and force of heartbeat
-digestive tract motility,
-rate and depoth of breathing, and many other visceral activities
Hypothalamic is involved with perception of (3)
The hypothalamic controls mechanisms needed to maintain
normal body temperature
The hypothalamic regulates feelings of
hunger and satiety
The hypothalamic regulates
sleep and the sleep cycle
Endocrine functions of the hypothalamus
Releasing hormones control secreation of hormones by the anterior pituitary
The supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei produce
ADH and oxytocin
Most dorsal portion of the diencephalon; forms roof of the third ventricle
Pienal gland
extends from the posterior border and secreats melatonin
a hormone involved with sleep regulation, sleep-wake cycles, and mood
Choroid plexus
a structure that secreats cerebral spinal fluid
The brain stem consists of three regions
-medulla oblongata
The brain stem is similar to the spinal cord by contains
embedded nuclei
The brain stem controls (TQ)
automatic behaviors necessary for survival
The brain stem is associated with (TQ)
10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves
located between the diencephalon and the pons
Cerebral aqueduct
hollow tube that connects the third and fourth ventricles
Midbrain nuclei control cranial nerves _____ and _____
III(oculomotor) IV(trochlear)
Corpora quadrigemina
four domelike protrusions of the dorsal midbrain
Superior colliculi (TQ)
Visual reflex centers
Inferior colliculi (TQ)
Auditory replay centers
Substantia nigra
functionally linked to basal nuclei
Forms part of the anterior wall of the fourth ventricle
The fibers of the pons relay
impulses between the motor cortex and the cerebellum
pons are the origin of the cranial nerves ___, _____ and ____
V (trigeminal)
VI (abducens)
VII (facial)
pons contain nuclei of the
reticular formation
Cardivascular control center
adjust force and rate of heart contractions
Respiratory centers
control rate and depth of breathing
The cerebellum provides
precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction
The cerebellar activity occurs
transversely oriented gyri
Arbor vitae
distinctive treelike pattern of the cerebellar white matter
Cerebellum Anatomy
two bilaterally symmetrical hemispheres connected medially by the vermis
cerebellum recieves impulses of the intent
to initiate voluntary muscle contraction
Proprioceptors and visual signals inform
the cerebellum of the bodys condition
the cerebellum cortex calculates
the best way to perfrom a movement
A "blueprint" of coordinated movement is sent
to the cerebral motor cortex
Two functional brain systems
-Limbic system
-Reticular formation
Limbic system
structures on the medial acpects of cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon
Limbic system includes (3)
deals with anger, danger, and fear responses
Which system puts emotional responses to odors
Limbic System