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263 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System
Composed of the brain and spinal cord
Surface anatomy of the brain
-cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brain stem
A) Telencephalon
B) Diencephalon
C) Mesencephalon
D) Metencephalon
E) Myelencephalon
A) Cerebrum
B) Diencephalon
C) Brain Stem; midbrain
D) Brain Stem; pons
E) Cerebellum
F) Brain Stem; Medulla onlongata
H) Spinal Cord
Lateral Ventricles
Third Ventricles
Cerebral aqueduct
A) Lateral Ventricles
B) Third Ventricles
C) Cerberal Ventricles
D) Fourth Ventricles
E) Central Canal
Spinal Cord
External to which is white matter composed of myelinated fiber tracts
-Similar to spinal cord but with more grey matter
-Cerebellum has gray matter in nuclei
A) Inner gray matter
B) Outer white matter
C) Gray Matter
D) Central Cavity
E) Region of cerebellum
F) Brain Stem
G) Spinal Cord
Ventricles of the Brain
Arise from the expansion of the lumen of the neural tube
The ventricles are (3)
-The paired C-shaped lateral ventricles
-The third ventricles found in the diencephalon
-The fourth ventricle found in the hindbrain dorsal to the pons
A) Lateral ventricle
B) Septum pellucidum
C) Third ventricle
D) Cerebral aqueduct
E) Fouth Ventricle
F) Central Canal
G) Anterior Horn
H) Interventricular foramen
I) Inferior horn
J) Lateral Seperture
The cerebral hemipsheres contain ______ and shallow ______
Ridges (gyri)
Grooves (sulci)
Deep groves in the cerberal hemispheres
Cerebral hemipsheres are seperatted by the
longitudinal fissure
The Cerebral hemipsheres have three basic regions
Cortex, white matter and basal nuclei
Deep sulci divide the hemipsheres into five lobes
Central Suculus
Seperates the frontal and parietal lobes
Parieto-occipital suculus
Seperates the parietal and occipital lobes
Lateral sulcus
seperates the parietal and temporal lobes
What two structures border the central sulcus
precentral and postcentral gyri
Cerebral cortex
superficial gray matter, that accounts for 40% of the mass of the brain. It enables sensation, communication, memory, understanding and voluntary movements
Each hemisphere in the cerebral cortex acts
contralaterally: controls opposite sides of the body
What is different about the hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
they are not equal in function
Motor Areas
control voluntary movement
Sensory areas
conscious awareness of sensation
Association areas
integrate diverse information
Primary motor cortex
loacted in the precentral gyrun
What is the primary motor cortex composed of
pyramidal cells whos axons make up the corticospinal tracts
What does the primary motor complex allow
conscious control of precise, skilles, voluntary movements
Motor homunclulus
Caricature of relative amounts of cortical tissue devoted to each motor function
premotor cortex
located anterior to the precentral gyrus
What does premotor cortex control
learned, repititous, and patterned motor skills
Brocas Area
-Located anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area
-present in one hemisphere
What role does brocas area play
-motor speech area that directs muscles of the tongue
-activates as one prepares to speak
Frontal eye field
Located anterior to the premotor cortex and superior to brocas area
What does the frontal eye field control
voluntary eye movement
What are the sensory areas of the brain
-Primary somatosensory cortex
-Somatosensory association cortex
-Visual and auditory areas
-Olifactory, gustatory, and vestibular cortices
Primary somatosensory cortex
Located in the postcentral gyrus
What role does the primary somatosensory cortex play
-recieves information from the skin and skeletal muscles
-exhibits spatial discrimination
Somatosensory homunculus
-caricature of relative amounts of cortical tissue devoted to each sensory function
Somatosensory association cortex
located posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex
What is the role of the somatosensory association cortex
Intergrates sensory information
Primary visual (striate) cortex
-seen on the extreme posterior tip of the occipital lobe
-Recieves visual information from the retinas
Visual association area
-Surrounds the primary visual cortex
-Interprets visual stimuli (color, form, and movement)
Primary Auditory cortex
-Located at the superior margin of the temporal lobe
-Revieves information related to pitch, rythm, and loudness
Auditory association area
-Located posterior to the primary auditory cortex
-Stores memories of sounds and permits preception of sounds
Where is wernickes area located
Auditory association area
What did carl wernicke describe about the brain
That people who suffer neurophysiological damage to this area are unable to understand the content word while listening, and unable to produce meaningful sentence; there speech has grammatical structures but no meaning
What are the association areas (4)
-prefrontal cortex
-Language areas
-General interpretation area
-Visceral association
Prefrontal cortex
-in the anterior portion of the frontal lobe
-Involved with intellect, cognition, recall, and personality
The prefrontal cortex is necessary for
judgement, reasoning, persistance, and conscience
Which cortex is linked to the limbic system
Prefrontal cortex
Where are the language areas located
-large areas surrounding the left lateral sulcus
Wernickes area (language area)
involved in sounding out unfamilary words
Brocas area (language area)
Speech preperation and production
Lateral prefrontal cortex (language area)
Language comprehension and word analysis
Lateral and ventral temporal lobe (language area)
coordinate auditory and visual aspects of language
General Interpretation Area
-Found in one hemisphere, usually the left
-Integrates incoming signals into a single though
-Involved in processing spatial relationships
A) Motor Cortex
B) Wernickes area
C) Angular gyrus
D) Visual cortex
E) Auditory Cortex
F) Brocas Area
each hemisphere has the abilities not shared with its partner
Cerebral dominance
-designates the hemisphere dominant for language
Left Hemisphere
-Controls language, math and logic
Right Hemisphere
-controls visual-spatial skills, emotion, and artistic skills
Cerebral White Matter
consists of deep myelinated fibers and their tracts
Cerebral white matter is responsible for the communication between
The cerebral cortex and lower CNS center, and areas of the cerebrum
Connect corresponding gray areas of the two hemispheres
Basal Nuclei/ganglia
Masses of gray matter found deep within the cortical white matter
The corpus stratum is composed of three parts
-Caudate nucleus
-Lentiform nucleus
-Fibers of internal capsule
Lentiform Nucleus
Composed of the putamen and the globus pallidus
What are the functions of Basal Nuclei (4)
-Influence muscualr activity
-Regulate attention and cognition
-Regulare intensity of slow or sterotyped movements
-Inhibit antagonistic and unnecessary movement
-Central core of the forebrain
What three paired structures does the diencephalon consists of
What structure enlcoses the third ventricle
Paired, egg-shaped masses that form the superolateral walls of the third ventricle
The thalamus is connected to the midline by the
intermediate mass
All inputs ascending to the cerebral cortex pass through the (TQ)
Thalamus plays a key role in (5)
mediating sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, learning, and memory
Located below the thalamus, it caps the brainsetm and forms the inferolateral walls of the third ventricle
Mammillary Bodies
small, paired nuclei bulging anteriorly from the hypothalamus
The mammillary bodies are the relay station for (TQ)
Olfactory pathways
Stalk of the hypothalamus; connects to the pituitary gland
What is the functions of the hypothalamic function
-blood pressue
-rate and force of heartbeat
-digestive tract motility,
-rate and depoth of breathing, and many other visceral activities
Hypothalamic is involved with perception of (3)
The hypothalamic controls mechanisms needed to maintain
normal body temperature
The hypothalamic regulates feelings of
hunger and satiety
The hypothalamic regulates
sleep and the sleep cycle
Endocrine functions of the hypothalamus
Releasing hormones control secreation of hormones by the anterior pituitary
The supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei produce
ADH and oxytocin
Most dorsal portion of the diencephalon; forms roof of the third ventricle
Pienal gland
extends from the posterior border and secreats melatonin
a hormone involved with sleep regulation, sleep-wake cycles, and mood
Choroid plexus
a structure that secreats cerebral spinal fluid
The brain stem consists of three regions
-medulla oblongata
The brain stem is similar to the spinal cord by contains
embedded nuclei
The brain stem controls (TQ)
automatic behaviors necessary for survival
The brain stem is associated with (TQ)
10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves
located between the diencephalon and the pons
Cerebral aqueduct
hollow tube that connects the third and fourth ventricles
Midbrain nuclei control cranial nerves _____ and _____
III(oculomotor) IV(trochlear)
Corpora quadrigemina
four domelike protrusions of the dorsal midbrain
Superior colliculi (TQ)
Visual reflex centers
Inferior colliculi (TQ)
Auditory replay centers
Substantia nigra
functionally linked to basal nuclei
Forms part of the anterior wall of the fourth ventricle
The fibers of the pons relay
impulses between the motor cortex and the cerebellum
pons are the origin of the cranial nerves ___, _____ and ____
V (trigeminal)
VI (abducens)
VII (facial)
pons contain nuclei of the
reticular formation
Cardivascular control center
adjust force and rate of heart contractions
Respiratory centers
control rate and depth of breathing
The cerebellum provides
precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction
The cerebellar activity occurs
transversely oriented gyri
Arbor vitae
distinctive treelike pattern of the cerebellar white matter
Cerebellum Anatomy
two bilaterally symmetrical hemispheres connected medially by the vermis
cerebellum recieves impulses of the intent
to initiate voluntary muscle contraction
Proprioceptors and visual signals inform
the cerebellum of the bodys condition
the cerebellum cortex calculates
the best way to perfrom a movement
A "blueprint" of coordinated movement is sent
to the cerebral motor cortex
Two functional brain systems
-Limbic system
-Reticular formation
Limbic system
structures on the medial acpects of cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon
Limbic system includes (3)
deals with anger, danger, and fear responses
Which system puts emotional responses to odors
Limbic System
Reticular Activating System
sends impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it conscious and alert
The Reticular Activating System filters out (TQ)
repetitive and weak stimuli
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
records brain wave activity
Alpha Waves
regular and rhythmic, low amplitude, slow, synchronous waves indicating an "idiling" brain
Beta Waves
rhythmic, more irregular waves occurring during the awake and mentall alert state
Theta Waves
more irregular than alpha waves; common in children but abnormal in adults
Delta Waves
high-amplitude waves seen in deep sleep and when reticular activating system is damped
A flat EEG is evidence of
Epilepsy is not associated with, nor does it cause
intellectual impairments
Absence seizures, or petit mal
mild seizures seen in young children where the expresson goes blank.
grand mal seizures
victim loses consciousness, bones are often broken due to instesive convulsions, loss of bowel and bladder control, and severe biting of the tounge
What is used to control epilepsy
valproic acid, a nonsedating drug, enhances GABA and is a drug of choice
Clinical Consciousness
defines on a continuum that grades levels of behavior-alertness, drowsiness, stupor
How many states of NREM does one pass through during the first 30-24 min
When does REM occour
after this fourth NREM stage has bee achieved
Stage 1 NREM
eyes are closed and relaxiation begins; the EEG shows alpha waves; one can be easily aroused
Stage 2 NREM
EEG pattern is irregular with sleep spindles (high voltage wave bursts); arousal is more difficult
Stage 3 NREM
sleep deepnes; theta and delta waves appear; vital signs decline; dreaming is common
Stage 4 NREM
EEG pattern is dominated by delta waves; skeletal muscles are relaxed; arousal is difficult
What is a characterisics of skeletal muscles in REM sleep
are inhibited
When does most dreaming take place
in the REM stage
what is presumed to be the restorative stage
Slow wave sleep
lapsing abruptly into sleep from the awake state
chronic inability to obtain the amount or quality of sleep needed
sleep apnea
temporary cessation of breathing during sleep
What are the three principles of memory
-storage, processing, memory traces
occurs in stages and its continually changing
accomplished by the hippocampus and surrounding structures
Memory traces
Chemical or structural changes that encode memory
How long does shorts term memory last and how much information is it limited to
-seconds to hours
-7 or 8 pieces of information
Emotional State
we learn best when we are alert, motivated, and aroused
repeating or rehersing materal enchances memory
associating new information with old memories in LTM enchances memory
What are the two categories of memory
fact memory and skill memory
Name the 3 traits of fact memory
-Entails learning explicit information
-Is related to our conscious thoughts nd out language ability
-Is stored with the contex in which it was learned
Skill memory
-Is aquried through practice
What is the difference from skill memory to fact memory
-Skill memories do not retain the contex in which they were learned
In memory neuronal ______ content is altered
In memory dendritic _______ change shapes
Extracellular protines are deposited at synapses involed in _____
Long Term Memory
More _______ is releases by presynaptic neurons
In memory new ______ neurons appear
The brain is protected by
-Bone, meninges and cerebrospinal fluid
Harmful substances are shielded from the brain by the ____-______ _____
Blood-brain barrier
What are the three connective tissue membranes that lie external to the CNS
-Dura matter
-arachnoid mater
-pia mater
What are the four functions of the meninges
-Cover and protect the CNS
-Protect blood vessels and enclose venous sinuses
-Contain cerebrospinal fluid
-Form partitions within the skull
Dura mater
leathery, strong meninx composed of two fibrous connective tissue layers
The two layers of dura mater seperate
in certian areas and from dural sinuses
What are the three dural septa extend inward and limit excwessive moevement of the brain
-Falx cerebri
-Falk cerebelli
-Tentorium cerebelli
Falx cerebri
-fold that dips into the longitudinal fissure
Falx cerebelli
-runs along the vermis of the cerebellum
-Tentorium cerebelli (TQ)
-horizontal dural fold extends into the transverse fissure
Arachnoid Mater
-middle menix, which forms a loose brain covering
________ ______ protude superiorly and permit CSF to be absorbed into venous blood
Arachnoid Villi
Pia Mater
-Deep matrix composed of delicate connective tissue that clings tightly to the brain
Cerebrospinal Fluid
watery solution that prevents the brain from crushing under its own weight
What function foes cerebrospinal fluid play
nourishes the brain and carries chemical signals throughout it
Blood-Brain Barrier
protective mechanism that helps maintain a stable enviroment for the brain
Bloodborn substances are seperated from neurons by (3)
-Continuous endothelium of capillary walls
-Relatively thick basal lamina
-Bulbous feet of astrocytes
What is the function of a blood-brain barrier
allows nutrients to pass freely
What is the blood-brain barrier innefective against
substances that can diffuse through plasma membranes
Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)
temporary episodes of reversible cerebral ischemia
Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA)
is the only approved treatment for stroke
Alzheimers Disease
a progressive degenerative disease of the brain that results in dementia
Perkinson Disease
degeneration of the dopamine-releasing neurons of the substantia nigra
Huntingtons disease
a fatal hereditary disorder caused by accumulation of the protien huntingtin that leads to degeneration of the basal nuclei
CNS tissue is enclosed within the vertebral column from the foramen magnum to
Epidural Space
space between the vertebrae and the dural sheath (dura mater) filled with fat and a network of veins
Conus medullaris
terminal portion of the spinal cord
Filum terminale
fibrous extension of the pia mater; anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx
Denticulate ligaments
delicate shelves of pia mater; attach the spinal cord to the vertebrae
Spinal nerves
31 pairs attach to the cord by paired roots
Cervical and lumbar enlargements
sites where nerves serving the upper and lower limbs emerge
Cauda equina
collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal
Anterior median fissure
separates anterior funiculi
Posterior median sulcus
divides posterior funiculi
What does gray matter consists of
Grey commissure
connects masses of gray matter; encloses central canal
Posterior (dorsal) horns
Anterior (ventral) horns
interneurons and somatic motor neurons
Lateral horns
contain sympathetic nerve fibers
(Gray matter) Dorsal half
sensory roots and ganglia
(Gray matter) ventral half
Motor roots (anterior horn cells)
_______ and ______ roots fuse laterally to form spinal nerves
Fibers from touch and pressure receptors form collateral _______ with interneurons in the ______ horns
-Synapses, Dorsal
the _______ tracts send impulses to the cerebellum and do not contribute to sensory preception
Lateral spinothalamic tract (TQ***)
nonspecific pathway for pain, temperature, and crude touch
Motor pathways
decending tracts delieve efferent impulses from the brain to the spinal cord, and are divided into two groups
Motor pathways involve
two neurons (upper and lower)
What do direct pathways originate with
the pyramidal neurons in the precentral gyri
Impulses from the direct pyramidal syatem are sent through the _________ tracts and ______ in the anterior horn
-corticospinal, synapse
What activates skeletal muscles
stimulation of anterior horn neurons
What are the two parts of the direct pathway called
-corticobullar tracts
-innervate cranial nerve nuclei
What parts are included in the indirect system
-rubrospinal, vestibulospinal, reticulospinal, and tectospinal tracts
Motor pathways are complex and multisynaptic, and regulate (3)
-axial muscles that maintain balance and posture
-Muscles controlling coarse movements of the proximal portions of limbs
-Head, neck and eye movement
Recticulospinal tracts
maintain balance
Rubrospinal tracts
control flexor movements
Superior colliculi and tectospinal tracts
mediate head movements
loss of motor function
Flaccid paralysis
sever damage to the ventral foor or anterior horn
Spastic paralysis
only upper motor neurons of the primary motor cortex are damages
in spastic paralysis spinal neurons are intact and muscles are
stimulated irregulary
In spastic paralysis there is no
voluntary control of muscles
transection between T1 and L1
Transection in the cervical region
destruction of the anterior horn motor neurons by the poliovirus
Lou Gehrigs Disease
neuromuscualr condition involving destruction of anterior horn motor neurons and fibers of the pyramidal tract
When is CNS established (TQ)
during the first month of development
What can harm a fetus developing CNS
maternal exposure to radiation, drugs