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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Several differences that affect the way we interact with other people

sex and gender

sexual orientation

race and ethnicity


social class

a person's sex is determined by


Gender differences

reflect learned behavior that is culturally associated with being a man or a woman

Gender Role definitions are



socially learned and reinforced characteristics that include one's biological sex and psychological characteristics

Men tend to talk

in order to accomplish something or to complete a task

Women more likely use conversation to

establish and maintain relationships


genetically transmitted physical characteristics of a group of people


social classification based on nationality, religion, language, and ancestral heritage, shared by a group of people who also share a common geographical origin

Cues we use to identify class distinctions

way of life





Principles that describe how social classes emerge from society

1. Virtually every organization or group develops a hierarchy that makes status distinctions

2 We are more likely to interact with people from our own social class

3. People who interact with each other over time tend to communicate in similar ways

4. members of a social class develop ways of communicating class differences to others by using visible symbols of social class

5. It is possible to change one's social class


learned system of knowledge, behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms shared by a group of people


individual perceptions or perceptions by a culture or group of people about key beliefs and issues


a distinct culture within a larger culture


the process of transmitting a group's culture from one generation to the next

Six dimensions of culture

individualism VS collectivism

emphasis on the surrounding context VS little emphasis on context

masculine values VS feminine values

degree of tolerance for uncertainty

approaches to power

short or long term approaches to time

Individualistic Cultures value

individual achievement and personal accomplishment

Collectivistic Cultures value

group and team achievement

Cultural Context

aspects of the environment and or nonverbal cues that convey information not explicitly communicated through language

High Context Culture

culture in which people derive much information from nonverbal and environmental cues

Low Context Culture

culture in which people derive much information from the words of a message and less information from nonverbal and environmental cues

Cultures in which people need certainty to feel secure are more likely

to create and enforce rigid rules for behavior and to develop more elaborate codes of conduct

People from cultures with a greater tolerance for uncertainty have

more relaxed, informal expectations for others

Societies with a more centralized power distribution generally value

greater power difference between people

Societies with a more decentralized power distribution tend to

minimize differences in power between people

People from a culture with a long term orientation to time

place an emphasis on the future and implies a greater willingness to subordinate oneself for a larger purpose

A culture that tends to have a short term time orientation

values spending rather than saving, tradition, and preserving face of both self and others

Barriers to Effective Intercultural Communication


different communication codes

stereotyping and prejudice

assuming similarities

assuming differences


belief that your cultural traditions and assumptions are superior to those of others

Specific Strategies to avoid being ethnocentric

be mindful

avoid stereotypes

separate the politics from the person

communicate interpersonally rather than impersonally


to place a person or group of persons into an inflexible all encompassing category


a judgement or opinion of someone formed before you know all of the facts or the background of the person

Intercultural Communication Competence

ability to adapt one's behavior toward another in ways that are appropriate to the other person's culture

You enhance your intercultural competence by becoming

knowledgeable, motivated, and skilled

To increase your knowledge of others who are different from you

you can actively seek information about others

ask questions and listen for the answers

establish common ground

Contact Hypothesis

the more contact you have with someone who is different from you, the more positive regard you will have for that person

Third Culture

common ground established when people from separate cultures create a third, new more comprehensive and inclusive culture

3 strategies can help you improve your acceptance and appreciation of others who are different from you

tolerate ambiguity

be mindful

avoid negative judgements


to consciously acknowledge that there is a connection between thoughts and deeds when you interact with a person from a background different from your own

Skills underlying being inter culturally competent are the abilities

to be flexible

to be other oriented

to adapt your communication to others

Social Decentering

cognitive process in which we take into account another person's thoughts, feelings, values, background, and perspective

Communication Accommodation Theory

theory that all people adapt their behavior to others to some extent

Adapt Predictively

to modify or change behavior in anticipation of an event

Adapt Reactively

to modify or change behavior after an event

4 Reason you may adapt your communication with someone


perceived behavior


communication context

How do we adapt to others

by the topic and level of intimacy of your conversation

by how you explain or describe something

by withholding or avoiding information

by your use of examples, comparisons, and analogies

by through your choice of language