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84 Cards in this Set

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What is the word used to describe a one-trait cross? Two-trait cross?
(monohybrid, dihybrid)
A foreign protein on a cell's surface Is known as an . An Immune system cell can respond to a foreign protein by producing .
(Antigen, Antibodies)
A person with type 0 blood has a baby With a person who has type AB. What are the possible blood types of their Offspring?
(A and B)
What does it mean if a trait is said to be polygenic? (an example is the shape of your nose)
(Polygenic)
According to the Lac-Operon model, when does lactase get synthesized or made in a bacterial cell?
(when the bacterium consumes lactose)
What is the process of making eggs called? Making sperm?
(oogenesis, spermatogene-sis)
Genes A and B recombine 50% of the time. Genes A and C recombine 10% of the time. What is the order of the genes?
(ACB or BCA)
What are the two sites on a ribo-some called that bond to existing And incoming amino acids?
(P site and A site)
Describe the contributions of Jacob and Manod in 1961.
(They described the Lac-Operon model in prokaryotes)
What is one major difference between Meiosis I and Meiosis II?
(No interphase during meiosis II and no pair of homo-logous chrom's or crossing over during Prophase II)
2N refers to an organism's Number and N refers to its Number.
(Diploid, haploid)
Name the 4 molecules that are modified into DNA nucleotides during DNA replication.
(dGTP, dATP, dCTP, dTTP)
In which direction does DNA polymerase read the DNA strand? In which direction are the new DNA strands synthesized?
(3' to 5' and 5' to 3')
List three ways that mRNA is "processed" before leaving the nucleus in eukaryotes.
(Introns spliced out, GTP cap added, Poly-A tail added)
What is translation?
(When the mRNA is translated 3 bases at a time by the ribo-some to an amino acid sequence)
List the 3 stages that occur for both trans-cription and translation
(Initiation, Elongation, termination)
Which enzyme unwinds the DNA Molecule during replication? Which Enzyme fuses Okazaki fragments?
(Helicase, Ligase)
What are the fragments of DNA called that occur on the lagging strand during replication that are eventually fused together?
(Okazaki Fragments)
What is transcription?
(When RNA Polymerase copies a segment of DNA — only one side of the DNA)
On which strand of DNA are Okazaki fragments found during replication?
(lagging strand)
Which part of a DNA sequence does RNA polymerase always bind to?
(Promotor Region)
What is wrong genetically with someone Who has Down Syndrome?
(They have an extra 21' chromosome)
Which two molecules make up a Ribosome?
(protein and rRNA)
What is the difference between a haploid cell and a diploid cell?
(Haploid: 1 set of chromosomes, Diploid: 2 sets of chromosomes)
Which protein (needed for cell division) is specifically made during the G2 phase of the cell cycle (just before the cell divides)?
(spindle fibers)
List 4 events that occur during Prophase of mitosis.
(Chrom's become visible, nuclear envelope disappears, centrioles migrate to opposite ends of the cell, spindle fibers form)
What is a sister chromatid?
(one side of a duplicated chromosome)
What is wrong genetically with someone who has Turner's Syndrome?
(they lack an X chromosome — so their genotype is XO)
What happens during Interphase and metaphase of mitosis?
(Inter — chrom's duplicate and during Meta — chrom's line up in the center of the cell)
What happens during Anaphase and Telophase of mitosis?
(Ana- chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell; Telo- two new nuclei Form)
List two events that occur during Prophase I of meiosis that do not occur during mitosis.
(homologous chrom's Pair and they cross over)
How many cells are produced from a single, diploid cell during meiosis? How do these cells compare to each other? How many chromosomes are in each Cell?
(4, all unique, %the normal #)
If a person that is type A (heterozygous) has a baby with a type 0 person. What are the possible blood types for their offspring?
(A and 0)
What is the name of Mendel's Law that states that homologous chromosomes assort independently of other homolo-gous chromosomes?
(Law of Independent Assortment)
Two parents who have brown eyes have a child with blue eyes. Which of Mendel's laws applies?
(1. law — Law of Segregation)
What is Wobble of the Anticodon?
(when the r base in the mRNA codon can vary and the same amino acid is coded for. For example, UUU and UUC both code for the amino acid Phenylalanine)
What is the mode of inheritance or Inheritance pattern for Sickle Cell Anemia?
(Codominant)
What is the name of Mendel's Law that states that alleles separate into sepa-rate sex cells and must recombine to produce recessive offspring?
(Law of Segregation)
Name 3 genetic disorders that are Caused by a recessive, autosomal mutation.
(PKU, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs)
Two parents that have brown hair and can both roll their tongue have a baby with blonde hair and can roll its tongue. Which of Mendel's laws applies?
(2" law — Law of Independent Assortment)
Which two scientists used radio-Active labels to determine that viruses inject DNA into cells?
(Hershey & Chase)
Which two bases make up purines in DNA? Pyrimidines?
(A & G are purines, C &T are pyrimidines)
If you use a punnett square to determine the pattern of inheritance for two traits and you find that your predicted ratios are a lot Different than your actual ratios, this tells You that
(genes are linked on the same chromosome)
If a trait is found to appear more often in males vs. females, then that gene is most likely carried:
(on the X chromosome)
What is added to the front of an mRNA Molecule before it leaves the nucleus? What is added to the end?
(GTP cap and Poly-A tail)
Chargaff noticed that in every DNA Sample there was always the same amount Of Adenines and Thymines. What did he conclude?
(A pairs with T)
Name two molecules that are made in the nucleolus that have to do with Protein synthesis.
(rRNA and protein)
In the Lac Operon model, which region Of the chromosome does the repressor bind to? Which molecule is the inducer?
(Operator, Lactose)
If a DNA template reads AUC, what would mRNA read?
(UAG)
Why must tRNA be complimentary to mRNA?
(because tRNA bonds tempor-arily to mRNA in the ribsome)
If an organism's 2N (Diploid) number is 26, what is its haploid number?
(13)
Which enzyme adds RNA nucleotides to a growing mRNA strand?
(RNA polymerase)
If mRNA reads AUC, what would tRNA Read?
(UAG)
Which code is used to find the correct amino acid when using an amino acid chart?
(mRNA)
DNA replication results in ____ new DNA molecules that have _______ DNA codes or sequences.
(2, identical)
When would a cell need to replicate its
DNA?
(Just before the cell divides)
Which type of molecule carries a copy
of a gene (copied from DNA) to the
ribosome?
(mRNA)
How many amino acids are available to
a cell?
(20)
Which enzyme adds DNA nucleotides to a growing DNA molecule?
(DNA polymerase)
Which type of life form did Hershey and chase label with radioactive sulfur and radioactive phosphorus?
(Viruses)
If a DNA segment reads ATGC, what
would the complimentary segment
read?
(TACG)
Which organelle in the cell is responsible for making proteins or polypeptides?
(Ribosomes)
What is the function of tRNA?
(Carries amino acids to the ribosome)
List two differences between DNA
and RNA.
(DNA double-stranded, RNA
single-stranded, different sugars,
DNA has thymine, RNA has Uracil,
DNA is permanent, mRNA is shorter
and temporary)
The Lac Operon model represents the
regulation of 3 genes that code for which
Enzyme?
(Lactase)
List the 6 phases of cell division in order-
(Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase,
Anaphase, Telophase, Wtokinesis)
List the 3 main parts of DNA.
(Phospahate, sugar, base)
What are the subunits in DNA called?
(nucleotides)
Which two types of organisms did Griffith
work with in 1928?
(Mice and bacteria)
On which molecule is an anticodon
Found?
(tRNA)
In which type of cell is the Lac Operon
Model found?
(bacteria/prokaryote)
Which part of an onion did we look
at to observe cells in Mitosis?
(the root tip)
What is the sugar in DNA called?
(Deoxyribose)
List the 4 types of nucleotides found
In DNA
(Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine,
Thymine)
A person is Bb for brown eyes. What is their
genotype? Phenotype?
(Geno=Bb, Pheno=Brown eyes)
What does it mean if a trait is sex-linked?
(Carried on the X chromosome)
In humans, our diploid chromosome
number is .
(46)
What is the function of mRNA in Protein
synthesis?
(carries a copy of DNA)
On which molecule is a codon found?
(mRNA)
In humans, what is our haploid chromosome
Number?
(23)
What letters are used to represent the
Heterozygous, homozygous dominant, and
Homozygous recessive genotypes?
(Bb, BB, bb)
Mitosis is the division of a diploid cell to
Make two new cells. Meiosis
Is the division of a diploid cell to make 4
New cells-
(Diploid, Gamete or
Haploid)
A segment of DNA that codes for a protein
Is known as a .
(Gene)
What is the function of tRNA in protein

Synthesis?
(Carries amino acids to the
Ribosome)