The Mendelian Genetic Experiment

Amazing Essays
Scientists have been using various organisms to perform experiments and do research to understand the various phenomenon that relates to human since doing experiments on human is against the law of human right. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) is one of the model organism that can be used for various applications. In this experiment, the fruit flies were used to observe the basic genetic mechanism, leading to understanding the mode of inheritances of other organisms since they all share similar genetic approach.
Background
Mendelian genetic is considered to the classic for genetic. There are three Mendel’s laws of genetics: the law of dominance, the law of segregation, and the law of independent assortment. The Mendel law of dominance
…show more content…
For instance, there are two types of chromosomes: autosomal and sex chromosomes. Sex-linkage behaves differently from autosomal chromosomes since males tend to have more impacts. In addition, crossing over can also happens between homologous chromosome; however, the frequency of having recombinant of two genes varies depending the gene loci. Crossing over can happens to any chromosome except for the male fruit fly sex chromosome due to unknown reason. Recombinant frequency uses to map out the linkage mapping whereas polytene chromosome, which are huge chromosome that is made through repeated round of DNA replication without cytokinesis, can be stained for cytogenic map. Both linkage and cytogenic map can be extracted for different information of the same chromosome. They can be used to tell the gene …show more content…
They also have straight forward mutation. The culturing of fruit fly can be done easily, and the generation is 11 days in 25℃ or two weeks in 21℃ incubators. The life cycle starts from egg, larvae, pupae, and to adult flies, chronologically. For two-week phase, the fruit flies spend eight days in egg and larvae, and six days in pupae. After two weeks, the adult flies start emerging from the pupae stage. A myriad number of mutations already has been subjected to serve as a tool for genetic studies. The mutations were from the exposure of the fruit flies to radiation. Seven readily identifiable phenotypes are used in the classroom for fly culture. Three sex-linked phenotypes are yellow, white, and bar whereas four autosomal phenotypes are vestigial, sepia, ebony, and apterous (Carolina Biological Supply Company, 2005).
Objective
The purpose of the experiment was to figure out the parental cross by using the observed phenotype in filial generation 1 (F1) and the ratio of F2. The experiment was conducted to perceive the basic principle and extension of Mendelian genetics such as the three Mendel’s laws and sex linkage.

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    Abstract DNA recombination is basically generation of the new DNA sequence in genome by exchange of DNA strands. Recombination generally but not necessarily occurs between similar DNA sequences and provides genetic variation, genome integrity [1]. There are four main ways being identified to produce recombinant DNA; homologous recombination in which physical exchange of DNA sequences occur between the homologous chromosomes, illegitimate recombination occurs between DNA sequences sharing low sequence similarity, site specific recombination require recombination enzymes that specifically bound short nucleotide sequence where cleave and rejoining occurs. The last class is transposition in which mobile DNA element move from one location to target…

    • 1692 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Meiosis Research Paper

    • 735 Words
    • 3 Pages

    During Prophase I, everything that normally happens in Prophase still occurs, but in Meiosis, the homologous chromosomes must be paired up and then crossed over into one another. This allows for genetic information to be shared between chromosomes that way when the homologous chromosomes are split, some information from both will be included in the two haploid cells. During Metaphase I, the homologous chromosome pairs are lined up at the equator randomly and spindle fibers attach to the kinetochore of each chromosome. The actual splitting process is also a little different in Meiosis; once the spindles begin pulling the chromosomes in opposite directions, the chromosomes are still composed of two sister chromatids. Meiosis II is referred to as the “separation division” because the two new haploid cells must go through a process very similar to mitosis to become four haploid cells containing unique genetic…

    • 735 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Subculture Study

    • 2536 Words
    • 11 Pages

    The gene forked is located in the chromosome 1. It is a sex-linked recessive mutation. Even though our observational data provided us with the results necessary to identify forked, our statistical data deviated in all the genetic crosses except for the marker discriminant cross one control. For the marker discriminant cross one, our chi-square values showed a very large deviation when forked present. The chi-square value of the males was at 40.92 while females had a square value of 14.78.…

    • 2536 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Crossing over is an event during meiosis when homologous chromosomes line up and exchange genetic information (Bhagat, R, et al.,2004). Resulting offspring follow set phenotypic ratio’s, which are presumed to be the null hypothesis that experiments are tested against (Brooker). In this experiment, the hypothesis for each of the crosses was that they follow the law of independent assortment resulting in a F2 generation with a 9:3:3:1…

    • 891 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Genetics When it comes to genetics, a person that comes to mind is Gregor Mendel. He was a scientist and botanist who was famous for discovering the genetics in a human being, and genetics in general. He was able to conduct his hypothesis as he used pea plants to show that planting two different pea plants can make a unique offspring, or even the same two peas can create a unique offspring. When coming up with these experiments, Mendel came up with three laws, The Law of Dominance, The Law of Segregation, and The Law of Independent Assortment. The Law of Dominance is “a recessive alleles will always be masked by dominant alleles”.…

    • 836 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    When DNA sequence appears in the genes, it has the same effect as mutations-nature can select for or against it resulting in evolution. Genetic drift, works on all mutations. It is the mechanism we relate to adaptation in an environment Darwin kept his ideas open, he knew that his ideas lacked efficient cause,” but hypotheses may often be of service to science, when they involve a certain portion of incompleteness, and even…

    • 1064 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Recombination and mutation are the motivation of evolution. Recombination is critical for repairing DNA lesions and for chromosomal pairing, and exchange during meiosis (Krejci et al. 2012). Recombination does not occur uniformly on the chromosomes of eukaryotes. Meiotic recombination in well studied yeast revealed that non-uniformity of recombination was observed when the frame of reference is an entire chromosome, multigene region and a pair of genes or a small region upstream of a gene (Lichten and Goldman 1995).…

    • 991 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    In Today’s Science article titled The Origami of DNA it was about how Genome is organized in looping. Genetic material stored in the nucleus in a compressed way that let on amounts of data to be stored in bitty places. Society had very clear perspective on how genomes were stored until recent times. Researchers have found approach that helps find the grouping of the human genome in three dimensions. Researchers discovered much of the genome was package into loops.…

    • 802 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Knockout mouse technology is valuable for determining the purposes and operations of genes that have not been sufficiently studied in the laboratory. These genes are replaced with mutant or diseased versions of themselves, permitting researchers to discover and discern how losing the normal function of certain genes can affect an organism. Through the use of this technology, the mouse genome has been extensively mapped and attributed to a variety of functions for specific genes. In this analysis, I will discuss knockout mouse technology, describe the systematic process used in the lab, and introduce the concept of conditional knockout mouse technology pertaining to Cre (bacteria) recombination. In order to begin the process of manipulating…

    • 1028 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    In addition, it focuses on Genetic recombination, a process in which results from the “exchange of genes between paired homologous chromosomes during meiosis” and rearranges DNA sequence to give different expressions and functions of certain genes (Cooper). In addition, it also can occur between related organisms and their chromosomes, which means that the overall arrangement does not get vastly altered (Martineau;Cooper). On the other hand, genetic engineering, whether it focuses on humans or crops, is a more recently developed practice that was discovered from the creations of Stephen Cohen and Herbert Boyer in 1973, after their experiment that demonstrated the impacts of DNA recombinants; this provided a framework for the current and modern genetic engineering known today (Winstead). Genes from any organism can be inserted into a different organism at random, causing an increase in mutation and an alteration in the spacing and amount of genes present…

    • 1503 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays