The Mendelian Genetic Experiment

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Scientists have been using various organisms to perform experiments and do research to understand the various phenomenon that relates to human since doing experiments on human is against the law of human right. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) is one of the model organism that can be used for various applications. In this experiment, the fruit flies were used to observe the basic genetic mechanism, leading to understanding the mode of inheritances of other organisms since they all share similar genetic approach.
Background
Mendelian genetic is considered to the classic for genetic. There are three Mendel’s laws of genetics: the law of dominance, the law of segregation, and the law of independent assortment. The Mendel law of dominance
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For instance, there are two types of chromosomes: autosomal and sex chromosomes. Sex-linkage behaves differently from autosomal chromosomes since males tend to have more impacts. In addition, crossing over can also happens between homologous chromosome; however, the frequency of having recombinant of two genes varies depending the gene loci. Crossing over can happens to any chromosome except for the male fruit fly sex chromosome due to unknown reason. Recombinant frequency uses to map out the linkage mapping whereas polytene chromosome, which are huge chromosome that is made through repeated round of DNA replication without cytokinesis, can be stained for cytogenic map. Both linkage and cytogenic map can be extracted for different information of the same chromosome. They can be used to tell the gene …show more content…
They also have straight forward mutation. The culturing of fruit fly can be done easily, and the generation is 11 days in 25℃ or two weeks in 21℃ incubators. The life cycle starts from egg, larvae, pupae, and to adult flies, chronologically. For two-week phase, the fruit flies spend eight days in egg and larvae, and six days in pupae. After two weeks, the adult flies start emerging from the pupae stage. A myriad number of mutations already has been subjected to serve as a tool for genetic studies. The mutations were from the exposure of the fruit flies to radiation. Seven readily identifiable phenotypes are used in the classroom for fly culture. Three sex-linked phenotypes are yellow, white, and bar whereas four autosomal phenotypes are vestigial, sepia, ebony, and apterous (Carolina Biological Supply Company, 2005).
Objective
The purpose of the experiment was to figure out the parental cross by using the observed phenotype in filial generation 1 (F1) and the ratio of F2. The experiment was conducted to perceive the basic principle and extension of Mendelian genetics such as the three Mendel’s laws and sex linkage.

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