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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Which cardiac chamber is closest to the spine?

Left atrium

Which layer of the heart is most affected by Staphylococcus aureus infection


A 5'2" patient weights 225 will have more_____ cardiac axis than A 6ft 185lbs patient


When evaluating the Left Atrium a volume index of 44ml/m2 indicates

Moderately dilated LA

What Doppler measurement is necessary to calculate the end diastolic pressure in the pulmonary artery

End diastolic velocity of pulmonary regurgitation

Which of the following views is utilized to get the best view of an AV canal defect


Which of the following symptoms is least likely to be demonstrated in a patient with an aortic valve area of .7cm2


Which of the transducer position will work best for the 2D evaluation of all of the sinus of valsalva simultaneously


The peak systolic velocity of TR is 4/ms the BP is 120/80 & the 2.7 IVC collapses >50% with respiration. What level of pulmonary Hypertension is there


If the distance to a reflector decrease by one half, how does this affect the transmit and return of time of the pulse

Decreases by Half

Which of the following is unaffected by isolated mitral stenosis

LV wall thickness

Chest pain increasing at night and DOE, accompanied by a "knocking" sound with auscultation, most likely indicates which?


Which system control will simultaneously enhance far field echoes and diminish near field echoes?
time gain compensation
Which of the following is true regarding rhabdomyomas?
They are commonly identified in the right heart chambers.
Which of the following best describes the Doppler flow evaluation in severe cases of aortic coarctation?
The flow at the stenosis will become a high velocity monophasic waveform with forward flow in diastole and the flow in the abdominal aorta will be very low velocity and monophasic.
All of the following are characteristics of a Doppler tracing of a stenotic tricuspid valve, except?
decreased mean pressure gradient
Which of the following describes a technique used to differentiate constrictive pericarditis from restrictive cardiomyopathy?
Use tissue Doppler to assess the mitral annulus
Which method of mitral regurgitation assessment is most accurate for evaluating a mechanical MVR in the apical 4 chamber view?
PISA radius
Aside from the m-mode recording of the left ventricular motion, what other m-mode tracing can provide information regarding left ventricular systolic function?
aortic m-mode of cusp separation
The peak velocity of pulmonary insufficiency can be used to assess:
mean pulmonary artery pressure
Which of the following is an expected E/A ratio in a patient with severe acute aortic regurgitation?
2.2 (>1.5)
All of the following are characteristics of constrictive pericarditis, except:
pericardial rub
All of the following describe aortic prosthetic dehiscence, except:
causes left ventricular pressure overload
All of the following abnormalities should include the evaluation of the abdominal aorta, except?
patent ductus arteriosus
All of the following correctly describe end diastolic pressure in the left ventricle, except:
is normally at least 3X the right ventricular diastolic pressure
Just after the ________________ on the EKG, mechanical systole occurs in the left ventricle.
QRS complex
Which echocardiographic view provides the best 2D evaluation of aortic stenosis?
Parasternal short axis
Which of the following lists the deceleration time and E/E' for a patient with grade II diastolic dysfunction of the LV?
170ms, 12
The ____________ the pulse packet used in color doppler, the better the flow sensitivity.
A patient presents with recent onset of significant orthopnea and pulmonary edema. Which of the following echo findings can explain these symptoms?
acute onset of severe MR
The image is from an echo with a suspected ASD. The color Doppler evaluation of the interatrial septum in multiple views does not demonstrate a defect. What is the explanation for the abnormal atrial septal appearance on the image?
The ultrasound beam is parallel to the septum causing drop-out.
Which of the following describes findings associated with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy seen with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy?
septal to posterior wall thickness ratio of 1.3:1 or greater
You are performing mitral regurgitation assessment on a transesophageal echo by measuring the PISA radius of the jet. After optimizing the color flow of the mitral regurgitation jet, which of the following console adjustments should be made before freezing the image?
shift the color baseline up to between 20 - 40cm/s to allow aliasing
Which of the following is the least likely related cardiac finding in a patient with isolated mild aortic regurgitation?
hypercontractile, enlarged left ventricle
The normal acceleration time for the pulmonary artery is greater than or equal to _____________msec.
All of the following controls adjust the number of shades of gray displayed of the 2D image, except?
wall filter
The double diamond sign on an m-mode tracing of the MV is indicative of mid diastolic closure caused by _____________.
elevated LV diastolic pressures
Marantic endocarditis is another term to describe
Libman-Sacks endocarditis
A patient presents for a 6 month follow up echocardiogram for a reported aortic peak velocity of 3.3m/s and AVA of 1.4cm2. On today's exam, the CW evaluation demonstrates an aortic peak velocity of 2.5m/s with the same AVA. Which of the following could explain the variation in measurements?
decrease in EF% from last exam
Flattening of the IVS is least likely to be associated with which of the following?
3mm muscular VSD
All of the following are methods used to differentiate a mitral regurgitation waveform from an aortic stenosis waveform, except?
difference in display on opposite sides of Doppler baseline
In order to obtain the mean pressure gradient of the aortic valve, you must
trace the outer edge of the Doppler waveform recorded from flow through the aortic valve
Which of the following cardiac wall segments are fed by the left circumflex artery?
basal anterolateral
Which of the following techniques can be used to most accurately differentiate a left sided cardiac mass from a sonographic artifact?
Use microbubbles to delineate the chamber walls.
. The tissue of the interventricular septum will be best visualized when:
the US beam is perpendicular to the long axis of the septum
Which type of murmur is associated with mild aortic stenosis?
systolic ejection
. A 18yr old male patient presents for an echo due to occasional dyspnea and a possible cardiac tumor seen on a recent CT scan of the chest. The chart states that he has a history of systemic HTN and tuberous sclerosis. What is the most likely diagnosis if the echo confirms the presence of a cardiac tumor?
. Impaired relaxation of the left ventricle is commonly associated with all of the following, except:
pulmonary HTN
You identify mitral valve prolapse on an echo. Which of the following describes what you should do to evaluate this patient for a commonly associated structural defect?
Evaluate the atrial septum for a secundum defect.
In a patient with _____________, the anterior leaflet of the MV is split giving the appearance of 3 leaflets in the valve.
Cleft mitral valve
Which of the following is least likely to lead to the acute onset of mitral regurgitation?
an isolated flail chordae
Which imaging artifact is caused by nonspecular reflections from a rough surface and wave interference?
The Doppler shift is:
the difference between the transmitted frequency and the reflected frequency.
Which of the following statements best describes Starling's Law?

As venous return increases, stroke volume will increase.

Which of the following adjustments would improve the appearance of contrast on the echo image?
Decrease output power
While scanning an obese patient, you apply color Doppler to the mitral valve in the apical four chamber view. When you adjust the placement of the box, there is a delay between your adjustment and the box responding to the movement. How can you correct this?
activate the zoom function over the mitral valve
A patient presents for an echo after a recent heart cath for pre-op evaluation for bypass surgery. The cath report states that the left anterior descending artery is 99% blocked and stent deployment was unsuccessful. What area of the heart should be closely evaluated for abnormal motion and potential thrombus formation?
LV apex
The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure evaluated on a right heart cath represents the pressure in the _____________
left atrium
_____________________ is the preferred method of diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis.
Cardiac catheterization
A patient presents for an echo and states that she has a history of Noonan's syndrome. She also tells you that she had "surgery on an abnormal valve as a child" but she does not know which valve. Which valve abnormality did she most likely have repaired?
dysplastic pulmonic valve
The Universal Precautions Standards were created by which of the following organizations?
Center for Disease Control
All of the following are advantages of bioprosthetic valves over mechanical valves, except:
more durable
Which of the following correctly describes the mitral valve Doppler tracing of a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
E/A ratio <0.8
. Which of the following E/A ratios would be expected with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
A patient presents for an echo and the order does not list an indication for the exam. You review the chart for the patient history to locate an appropriate indication for the echo. Which of the following is an appropriate indication to perform an echo?
lab work that demonstrates the presence of staphylococcus aureus
Which of the following is NOT a potential cause of infiltrative cardiomyopathy?
carcinoid disease
Why does the foramen ovale close in most babies after birth?
due to the pressure in the left atrium holding the flap of tissue closed over the opening
The vena contracta would be accurately measured in which of the following patients?
mitral regurgitation caused by bileaflet prolapse
The functional left ventricular outflow tract is defined as:
the area between the ventricular septum to the anterior aortic annulus and the anterior MV leaflet to the posterior aortic annulus.
A patient presents for an echo with a history of cor pulmonale. Which of the following is an expected finding on the exam?
Pulmonary HTN
Which of the following is least likely to cause tricuspid regurgitation?
IVC thrombus
The American Heart Association recommends that a rescuer try to perform a minimum of ________________ compressions per minute on a child or infant.


All of the following can reduce the risk of a vasovagal response to contrast injection, except:
Drink a caffeinated drink the day of the exam (coffee, tea or soda)
Which of the following best describes the primary reason why the TEE probes are soaked in a disinfectant for a specified amount of time?
Soaking the probe too long in a disinfectant solution can damage the bonding effect of the glue used to assemble the probes.
. Which of the following correctly describes the way to tell the difference between a vasovagal response and anaphylaxis caused by contrast injection?
Pallor is a sign of vasovagal response, while erythema is a sign of anaphylaxis.
Which type of image resolution improves with proper placement of the focal zone at the area of interest?
Which of the following vessels drains the coronary blood from the apex and septum of the left ventricle?
great cardiac vein
You perform an echo on a 55yr old adult and identify tricuspid stenosis. What's the most likely cause for this finding?
Rheumatic fever
How can a contrast echo help to confirm the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis?
used to evaluate the IVC for the appearance of presystolic contrast reversal at the RA junction
. Hemochromatosis involves excess ____________ deposits ____________________.
iron, in the myocardium
All of the following are considered critical findings on an echocardiogram, except:
2 flail chordae of the anterior leaflet of the MV
Which of the following patients would benefit from a TEE exam?
St Jude AVR with suspected stenosis