Ball & Bindler (2008) describes this condition as an opening in the ventricular septum, which causes an increase in pulmonary blood flow. VSD is a hole in the wall separating the two lower chambers of the heart (AHA, 2016). The blood is shunted from the left ventricle artery, across the open septum into the pulmonary artery without any impediment (Ball & Bindler, 2008). The opening may cause a higher pressure in the heart or reduced oxygen to the body (AHA, 2016).
This is the most common congenital heart defect, as reported by Ball & Bindler (2008) and it is responsible for about 40% of all defects.
In cases of small openings or holes, there may be little or no symptoms, only a small murmur may be heard with …show more content…
Several signs and symptoms occur due to the lack of separation of the two sides of the heart. These are described by the University of Maryland Medical Center (2016) reports, some of them are: increased bold pressure in the lungs, irritation and swelling, heart failure, cyanosis. Others include: baby tires easily, bluish skin color (the lips may also be blue), failure to gain weight and grow, frequent pneumonia, lack of appetite, pale skin (pallor), rapid breathing, rapid heartbeat, sweating, swollen legs or abdomen (rare in children), and trouble breathing, especially during feeding (UMMC, 2016).
According to Ball & Bindler (2008), diagnostic procedure involves chest radiographs; cardiomegaly and pulmonary vascular markings are usually present. ECG reveals atrial enlargement, right ventricular hypertrophy, and an incomplete right bundle branch blood are observed. Echocardiogram shows dilation of the ventricles, septal defects and details of valve malformation, while cardiac catheterization shows increased oxygen in the right atrium and a higher pressure in the right ventricle and/or pulmonary artery (Ball & Bindler, 2008). Furthermore, UMMC (2016) stated that an ultrasound of the heart (echocardiogram) shows the blood flow, an electrocardiogram (ECG) measures the electrical activity in the heart, a chest x-ray may show an enlarged heart, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart provides …show more content…
Ball & Bindler (2008) stated that some children have a fifth defect, an open foramen ovale or atrial septal defect. A right to left shunt occurs as a result of an elevated pressure on the right side of the heart.
According to Ball & Bindler (2008), about 10% of children with congenital heart defects have tetralogy of the fallot.
The National Institute of Health (2011) reported that babies and children who have tetralogy of Fallot have episodes of cyanosis, which is a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails. It occurs because the oxygen level in the blood leaving the heart is below normal.
Diagnosis involves the use of chest cardiograph, which shows a boot-shaped heart due to the enlarged right ventricle, decreased pulmonary markings, and a prominent aorta (Ball & Bindler, 2008). ECG reveals a right ventricular hypertrophy and an echocardiogram shows VSD, obstruction of pulmonary outflow, an overriding aorta, and the size of the pulmonary arteries. Anatomic defects are made visible be cardiac catheterization and blood tests will show high levels of hematocrit and hemoglobin and an increased clotting time (Ball & Bindler,