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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who was the first to describe the cardiovascular system?
Who proved that circulation was an intact system?
William Harvey
No cell is more than how far from a capillary?
10 microns
What are the three layers of the pericardium?
The fibrous layer, pericardial cavity, and visceral layer
Cardiac tamponade does what?
Increases the amount of fluid in the pericardial cavity
True/False: The cardiac conduction system is just modified cardiac muscle
What is the order of stimulation of the heart?
SA node --> AV node in the septum between ventricles --> Bundle branches --> Purkinje fibers
True/False: The force of pumping action of the heart drives blood through the system
FALSE--it is the pressure drop from the left side of the heart across circulation to the right side of the heart
Why does the right chamber of the heart have less muscle?
Because it pumps blood at a lower pressure in the pulmonary circuit
What happens when the papillary muscles are contracted?
The chordae tendinae become taut and the valves close
What valves can regurgitation occur in and what happens?
The mitral and aortic valves can allow regurgitation and this allows blood to leak from system back into the heart chambers and therefore you will have less cardiac output to deliver
What is stenosis and what valves can it occur in? What happens as a result?
Mitral and aortic valves undergo hardening due hardening due to scar tissue formation and in order to deliver the same cardiac output, the intercardiac pressure has to increase and cardiac hypertrophy results
What forms the majority of the cardiac extracellular matrix?
COLLAGEN--hold capillaries close to myocytes for nourishment
If too much collagen is produced in the heart...?
It becomes rigid and less able to contract
What is angina pectoris?
It is the compromise or partial block of coronary vessels attributed to plaque buildup
When does collateral circulation occur?
When there is a coronary block--vessels emerge from the healthy parts of the artery
What makes up the collecting system?
vena cavae and systemic veins
True/False: All vessels except venules contain endothelium.
FALSE--they all have it
How does cardiovascular endothelium relate to the vascular smooth muscle in vessels? What are 3 interaction types?
Endothelium forms a functional unit with the VSM cells and produces substances to maintain vascular tone. 1. Mechanical--VSM contraction compresses the endothelium 2. Electrical--agonists act on the endothelium and induce a membrane potential change coupled via gap junctions 3. Chemical--NO
What is stimulated by shearing forces?
How does NO work directly and how does it work indirectly?
It causes vasodilation directly by diffusing into VSM cells and indirectly by inhibiting vasoconstrictor influences = angiotensin II and the symp. nervous system
True/False: NO inhibits platelet adhesion to the endothelium
The break down of endothelium is what?
How are arteries able to contract?
Sympathetic neuron stimulation causes contraction--norepi = vasoconstriction; block norepi = vasodilation
What allows for continuous flow in the body?
The elastic tissue in arteries--distensible and responsive
What provides most of the resistance to blood flow in the circuit? What can they do?
ARTERIOLES--control the fractional distribution of blood flow to various capillary beds