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38 Cards in this Set

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Categories of Accessories


Hosiery and legwear



Hats and headwear







used by apparel companies

and retailers to combine

apparel and accessories in

their product offerings

Some apparel co. create their own

accessories to coordinate with their

Apparel others form agreements to produce

Categories of footwear

Athletic footwear

Dress shoes and Boots

Casual shoes


Work shoes and boots

Western/casual boots

Hiking, hunting, and fishing boots

Most shoe styles originated in Europe.

A moccasin originated in America.

Merchandising and Marketing Shoes

The major U.S. market center for shoes is located in NYC.

The Fashion Footwear Association of NY (FFANY)

Stages the international footwear trade show, NY Shoe Expo three times a year.

Brand/designer names are important in the footwear industry:

Manufacturers advertise aggressively in national fashion magazines and on national TV.

Shoe Trends

Clothing designers designing shoes.

Tremendous growth of overseas manufacturing:

98% of shoes are manufactured overseas

Strong relationship between shoes and the clothes with which they are worn:

Apparel fashions influence more and more both the styling and color of footwear.

Retailers coordinating shoes and apparel.

Hosiery; flatknit vs. full-fashioned

Produce men’s, women’s, children’s socks, stockings, pantyhose, and tights

Long and notable history in the US

Hosiery history of development

Stocking knitting machines in New England

as early as 1775

For centuries were hand knit, shapes created by adding and deleting stitches…. No seams

Framework knitting machines were invented in England at the end of the 16th century


Nylon can be heat set so the foot and leg

shape can be molded over a leg-shaped board

Blocking or boarding is this process


are the best selling classification within the accessories industry.

When first introduced, handbags were nondescript, utilitarian items.

Today’s handbags are designed to send specific statements about the owner.


Women’s hat industry

Hat industry suffered terrific losses during the 60’s and 70’s, due to the casual dress approach and elaborate women’s hairstyles.

During that time, the National Millinery Institute researched, publicized and campaigned in a vast, unsuccessful effort to reverse the trend.

No amount of sales promotion can change the direction of a fashion movement

Eyewear trends

In combination with the move to protect eyes from UV rays, increased fashion presence and marketing has created a $2.7 billion sunglass industry.

Prescriptive eyeglasses are another important segment:

Fashionable styles are available at different price points.

Eyeglasses are moving from the functional to the fashionable.

Licensing for eyewear with globally recognized brands such as Coach, Calvin Klein, Dior is an important part of the industry.

Jewelry Categories




Basic categories of home fashions

(1) Soft goods

Are composed of the following classifications of goods:

Bed, bath, and table linens

Window: curtains and draperies and wall coverings

Upholstery fabric and furniture coverings

Soft floor coverings: area rugs

(2) Tabletops

Are composed of the following classifications of







Product categories of home fashions

The most commonly used categories are:




Two other important categories are:



Thread count

refers to the number of threads per square inch; ranges from 180 to 350 or more:

A higher count indicates a finer, softer fabric.

200 thread count is considered the standard.

Cotten content

refers to the amount of cotton in linen made of a cotton/polyester blend.

100% is considered the finest quality of cotton.

Pima cotton sheets are made with at least 8% of high-quality cotton fiber from Arizona.

Supima sheets are made of 100% pima cotton.

Egyptian cotton is the finest cotton for sheets and pillowcases.


Glass is made of sand melted down and allowed to harden into a desired shape.

It is a nonporous vessel ideal for storing and serving food and beverages.

Libbey Company is the largest U.S. glassware manufacturer.

The most expensive glass is leaded crystal.

Types of glassware

Tumblers, cylindrical glasses that sit directly on surfaces.

Footed tumblers, tumblers with a second piece added to the bottom that rests on surfaces..

Stemware, consisting of a bowl, stem, and foot.

Window treatments

Windows are a focal point for interior design, linking the room and the outside world.

Window treatments refer to draperies, curtains, and fabrics shades as well as decorative treatments such as valences.

A matching valence is a horizontal strip across the top of the window.

Curtains are made of lightweight fabrics, while draperies are made of heavier, opaque, often lined materials.

Today, window treatments are often made of acrylic, polyester, nylon, and other synthetic materials.

Shutters made of plastic, wood, and metal are beautiful and effective window treatments.

Furniture and rugs

an expensive purchase, is an important item for the upholstery selection

Area rugs are made in standard sizes and cover most of the area of a floor:


Flexible in decorating than carpets

Carpets are permanently tacked to the floor, giving considerably less flexibility than area rugs.

Oriental rugs are the most prized rugs, coming from a long tradition of hand weaving and dying.

Antique rugs from Asia are highly valued home accessories.

Trade shows for home fashions

The main trade shows are held in New York, Chicago, and Atlanta:

The New York Home Textiles Show at the Jacob Javits Center in Jan. and Aug.

The International Home and Housewares Show in Chicago in March.

The Atlanta International Area Rug market

Publications for home fashions

Trends in home fashions

Growing fashion influence

Increased Use of High-Tech Fabrics

Growth of exports

Increase awareness of ecological issues

Increased automation in design and production

History of Men's fashion

Mid-to Late 1800s

Workers’ union was formed to improve their working conditions:

The Journeymen Tailors’ National Union in 1883, as a craft union

The United Garment Workers of America in 1891

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACWA) in 1914, remained the major union of the men’s wear industry until 1970s.

The Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers’ Union (ACTWU) in 1976

The Union of Needletrade, Industrial, and Textile Employees (UNITE) in 1995

UNITE HERE (the Hotel Employee and Restaurant Employees) in 2004

Mid-to Late 1800s

Since the sewing machine was introduced in 1846, the production of men’s clothing has been sped up.

The paper pattern was invented by Ebenezer Butterick in 1863 with improved sizing and fit for ready-to-wear clothing.

Men’s clothing was produced in 3 different ways:

In inside shops/garment factories

In contract shops/ contractors’ factories

In homes

Short run

Sportswear uses a short run production which is the production of a limited number of units of a particular item

Slop shop

the early ready-to-wear stores for sailors.


Tailored Clothing:

Includes suits, overcoats, topcoats, sports coats, formal wear, and separate slacks that involve hand-tailoring operations.

Although the demand for tailored clothing has declined, tailored suits remain essential in the men’s wear industry.

The production of tailored clothing is a long, complicated process: 1) Select styles for a new line; 2) present the line to buyers; 3) cut the suits.

Demand for suit separates has been increased: 1)refer to sports jackets and trousers; 2) jacket and pants are sold separately; 3) lower-priced.

Merchandising and marketing handbags

Handbag manufacturers advertise their products in newspapers, magazines, and TV.

Catalogs, home shopping networks and the Internet are increasing way to sell handbags.

Overseas manufacturing is growing in handbag industry.

The National Fashion Accessories Association (NFAA) promotes the domestic handbag industry.

Fine Jewelry

Only precise metals such as gold and platinum are used to make fine jewelry.

The stones used in fine jewelry are called gemstones which always come from natural mineral. formations. Among the ones called most precious are diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires.

Fine jewelry production is still a handcraft industry.

Established fine jewelry houses design, produce and do retail sales under one roof.

Famous names of these houses are Tiffany, Cartier, Van Cleef & Arpels, Bulgari.

Costume or Fashion Jewelry

Costume jewelry is like mass-produced apparel.

Is attractive in their appearance, is less costly.

Coco Chanel introduced costume jewelry at first in the 1920s.

Large firms, such as the Monet Group, dominate the industry and offer multiple price lines and work with many different materials.

Bridge Jewelry

Dramatic increases in the price of gold and silver in the 1980s led the development of bridge jewelry.

Bridge jewelry forms a bridge – in price, material and style – between fine and costume jewelry.

Fills the public’s demand for reasonable priced authentic jewelry.

The development of bridge jewelry led to increased use of sterling silver.

Ethnic Jewelry

Ethnic jewelry includes pieces from all over the world – at all price points.

They can be made of shells, stones, wood or fabric.

Another ethnic jewelry category involves
wearing religious or spiritual symbols, such as the Christian cross, in necklaces, earrings, and rings.

There is a growing number of firms
making licensed copies or reproductions
of museum pieces of jewelry.

Museums are selling vast amounts of these inexpensive reproductions.


The first modern wristwatch was introduced by Cartier in 1904.

The inexpensive Timex watch of the 1960s broadened the market for watches.

Swatch have become popular with its casual watches since the 80s.

In the 90s, the sports-watch became popular.

Luxury watches such as Rolex, Omega, Cartier, Piaget offer unique designs and value to wearers.

Watches are both fashion statements and useful devices.

Sportswear/Casual wear

Includes jacket, knits and woven sports shirts, slacks, and leisure shorts.

The fastest growing segment of men’s wear industry since the 1970s..

Use contractors to keep up with the fast moving fashion cycles.

The quick production of the styles, colors, and fabrics is more important than the quality.

Has a much narrower size range than tailored clothing.


Is the rapid growth market segments.

Consists of clothing worn during active sports

participation and leisure time.

The large segment of this market is men.

Contemporary Apparel

Refers to a special type of styling that provides high

quality and fashion.

Worn by style-conscious men of all age groups today.

Produced by both tailored-clothing and sportswear


Produced under a name designer’s licensing agreement.

Bridge Apparel

The style gap between young men’s and men’s collections

The price gap between contemporary and designer apparel.

Bridge customers are between 25 and 40, having sophistication and style.

The Big Four

The “Big Four” American men’s designers:

Ralph Lauren

Calvin Klein

Donna Karen

Tommy Hilfiger