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T or F: Seedless vascular plants produce only spores, not seeds.

True

T or F: Seed plants only produce seeds, not spores.

False. Seed plants produce spores and seeds.

What is Lycopodiophyta?




Does it have micro or megaphylls?



Where are the spores located?

A seedless vascular plant: club mosses, ground pine.


microphyll


spores in unfused sporangia, often in terminal cone

What are the characteristics of the gametophyte in a seedless vascular plant?

1. gametophyte is significantly smaller than the sporophyte.


2. anchored by rhizoids


3. lacks vascular tissue, leaves and roots


4. produce archegonia and antheridia


5. Water is required to move sperm.

What is required for fertilization of a seedless vascular plant?

water

Seedless vascular plants organize their sporangia in these three distinct structures.

1. Strobilus ( cone-like) /


2. Sorus /


3. Synangium

What is a sporophyll?

modified leaves or leaf like organs that bear the spore-producing sporangia

What are the three parts of a strobilus?

1. Sporangium (attached to) /


2. Sporophyll (attached to) /


3. Axis (stem with xylem and phloem)

What is a strobilus?

Short, unbranched determinate stem w/ very short internodes and spore-bearing appendages (sporophylls)

What is a sorus?

Sporangia that are in groups, usually on underside of leaf. Usually found on most ferns.

The sporangia in a sorus is protected by:

the indusium

What is a synangium?

Sporangia fused into a single structure.


On a stem or leaf.

How is sexual expression of the gametophyte determined in homosporous spores?

external factors (e.g., environment)

T or F: Homosporous spores are different sizes and shapes.

False. All homosporous spores are the same size and shape.

The sex of the gametophyte is genetically predetermined in what type of spores?

heterosporous spores

Male gametophytes of heterosporous plants produce ________ in ___________ which are attached to ___________

microspores


microsporangium


microsporophylls

Microspores grow into______________

microgametophytes (male)

Female gametophytes of heterosporous plants produce_______ in ___________ which are attached to __________.

megaspores


megasporangia


megasporophylls

Megaspores grow into _________________

megagametophytes (female)

Is a heterosporous plant dioecious or monoecious? Or can it be both?

All heterosporous plants must be dioecious.

Is a homosporous plant dioecious or monoecious? Or can it be both?

A homosporous plant can be either dioecious or monoecious.

Monoecious plant is...

a hermaphroditic gametophyte, meaning that it can produce both male and female gametangia on the same gametophyte individual, and is capable of fertilizing itself.

A dioecious plant is...

needs two different gametophyte individuals (male and female) each possessing only archegonia or antheridia to procreate (fertilization).

T or F: A heterosporous plant will always be dioecious.

True

Fertilization of a non-seed vascular plant results in...

a diploid sporophyte that grows from gametophyte.

A mother cell in a sporangium of a fern is also called a _________ and goes through ___________ to produce tetrad spores.

sporocyte /




meiosis

Gymnosperms are:

vascular plants with "naked" seeds. (not protected by fruit)


not enclosed in pistil.


ex: pinecones

Angiosperms are:

vascular plants with seeds protected by fruit.

An ovule is:

An unfertilized seed.

An ovule ploidy is:

2n

In a seed plant, each ______________ produces four ________________ but only one survives.

megasporocyte /




megaspores

T or F: In a seed plant, the megaspore is released from the megasporangium to produce a megagametophyte individual.

False. The megaspore is never released from the megasporangium.

How many mega spores are produced by the megasporocyte?

4.

How many viable megaspores are produced by each megasporocyte?

only 1. The other 3 deteriorate.

In a seed plant, where is the megagametophyte found?

in the megasporangium (or ovule)

In a seed plant, microgametophytes are also known as ...

pollen grains

In a seed plant, where does the male gametophyte mature?

inside the microsporangium

In a seed plant, how does pollination occur?

Environmental factors such as wind or by a pollinator, like a bee, other insect or other animal.

In a seed plant, what is the megasporangium structure called before it is fertilized?

an ovule. (before fertilization)

In a seed plant, what is the opening called that a sperm enters to fertilize the seed?

micropyle

What is the outer wall structure of an ovule/ called?

integument

At the beginning of the lifecycle of the ovule, what can be found in its center ?

A megasporocyte.

In a seed plant where can you find the entire lifecycle of the female gametophyte?

In the ovule.

In a seed plant, explain what happens from the megasporocyte to pollination and include ploidys of structures.

Megasporocyte (2n) undergoes meiosis to produce 4 megaspores(n). Only one megaspore(n) survives. The other 3 deteriorate. Surviving megaspore undergoes mitosis creating a megagametophyte(n) with egg(n). Eventually, microgametophyte(n), or pollen grain(n) with sperm (n) enters through micropyle and fertilizes the egg (n) (pollination) creating a zygote/embryo (2n). At fertilization the ovule(n) is now called a seed (2n)

An ovule is made up of what structures? (include ploidy)

Integument (2n) /




megagametophyte tissue (n) /




egg (n) /




The ovule itself is 2n.

Once an ovule becomes fertilized, what do these structures become?




integuments /


fertilized egg /


megagametophyte

seed coat /




embryo /




stored food

What is the seed coat?

outer protective covering of seed

What are the three structures of a seed?

1. seed coat /




2. nutritive tissue ( in gymnosperms this is the female gametophyte, in angiosperms this is the endosperm (3n) /




3. embryo

What are the three parts of a seed embryo?

1. cotyledon /




2.hypocotyl /




3.radicle

What is the cotyledon and what is its function?

It is the part of the seed structure that is the first leaves of the seed. Its function is to store or absorb food.

What is the hypocotyl?

axial part of the embryo or seedling located between the cotyledon(s) and the radicle


What is a radicle?

embryonic root

What are the reproductive advantages of seeds?

1. Seeds have a well-developed, multicellular young sporophyte with root, stem and leaves already formed /




2. integrated food supply so seed can be self-sufficient. /




3. protected from physical and chemical damage by seed coat and parent plant.



Describe the structure of a gymnosperm microstrobilus:

short, small, fleshy cone at the end of branches.


microsporangium connected directly to the microsporophyll, connected to the unbranched axis.

The male gametophyte of a gymnosperm is made up of how many cells?

4

The male gametophyte of a gymnosperm has 4 cells... name them:

2 prothallial cells


1 tube cell


1 generative cell

What cell in a microgametophyte of a gymnosperm produces microgametes?

the generative cell

What does the generative cell of a microgametophyte in a gymnosperm do?

Produces 2 non flagellate sperm nuclei (microgametes)

How could you recognize a microgamete from a gymnosperm?

It has wings, and looks like a mickey mouse head.

Describe the structure of a gymnosperm megastrobilus:

Compound cone name of fused pine needles. Ovule is attached to ovuliferous scales, which is attached to the megasporophyll, which is attached to the unbranched axis.

In a gymnosperm megastrobilus, what is the piece of tissue that seperates the ovule from the megasporophyll?

Ovuliferous scale

What ploidy is a micro/megastrobilus?

2n

Describe the pollination and fertilization of a gymnosperm ovule

Pollen grain lands on micropyle of ovule. Tube cell from 4-celled winged pollen grain creates pollen tubes so sperm can reach the archegonium of female gametophyte. 1 sperm nucleus fuses with 1 egg nucleus to form zygote/embryo. Ovule becomes seed, still attached to ovuliferous scale. Sporophylls of cone, relate seed (with scale) for germination into mature sporophyte.

T or F: Gymnosperms grow very slowly.

True

The xylem of angiosperms contain:

vessels and tracheids

The phloem of angiosperms contain:

sieve members and companion cells.

A flower is also known as a:

bisporangiate strobilus

T or F: A bisporangiate strobilus contains whorls of only fertile appendages.

False. They contain whorls of sterile and fertile appendages.

What are the sterile appendages of a flower (bisporangiate strobilus)

Receptacle /




Sepals /




Petals

What is the function of the receptacle of the flower?

holds the whorls. /




part of flower stalk to which floral parts are attached. /




platform that holds everything together.

What is the function of sepals on flowers?

protect developing bud

What is the function of petals on flowers?

1. Protect fertile appendages /




2. Attract specific pollinators ( dots glow... act like landing strips for insects)

Where is the receptacle of a flower located?

At the base of the pistil. Where the stem meets the flower

Where is the sepal of a flower located?

They are the leaf like structures between the stem and the flower.

What are the fertile appendages of flowers? (Houses)

Androecium (male) /




Gynoecium (female)

What is the androecium composed of?

A stamen which is made of a filament and an anther.

What is an androecium?

modified microsporophylls w/microsporangia

What is a stamen composed of?

filament and anther

What does the filament of the stamen do?

Elevates anther for pollen dispersal.

What does the anther contain?

4 microsporangia (pollen sacks) fused together.

Describe the microgametophyte production of an angiosperm with ploidy:

The anther (2n) is composed of 4 microsporangia (2n) that hold microsporocytes(2n). The microsporocytes go through meiosis to produce microspores (n). Microspores go through mitosis to form microgametophytes(n) which produce pollen grains(n) . When pollen grains are mature, the anther breaks open, releasing the pollen grains.

The microgametophyte of an angiosperm is made up of how many cells ?

2

What are the two cells in a microgametophyte of an angiosperm called?

generative cell


tube cell

The generative cell of an Angiosperm microgametophyte produces:

microgametes (2 sperm nuclei)

Lycopodiophyta have:

microphylls

Monilophyta have:

megaphylls

What is a gynoecium?

a megasporophyll evolutionarily modified to enclose ovule(s)


What is a carpel?

1 megasporophyll w/ovule(s)

What is a pistil?

1 or more fused carpels

What is the pistil made of?

stigma /




style /




ovary

Where is the stigma of the pistil, and what is its function?

It is located at the top of the pistil and it is a sticky pollen receptor

What is the style of the pistil?

It is the long stalk that connects the stigma and ovary.

Where is the ovary of a pistil found and what is its function?

It is at the base of the style, sitting on top of the receptacle. It encloses the ovules. It is considered the megasporangia of angiosperms.

The ovary in a flower may be partitioned into:

locules

What are locules?

chambers holding ovules that are located in the ovary of the flower (ovary is located at the base of the pistil)

An angiosperm ovule holds what? ( What is the megagametophyte?)

A 7-celled, 8 nucleate embryo sac.

How many cells does the embryonic sac of an angiosperm have?

7 cells, 1 having 2 nucleuses.

Explain the components of a mature female gametophyte of an angiosperm.

7 celled, 8 nucleate embryo sac.

What is the cell called in an angiosperm female gametophyte that has 2 nuclei?

polar cell

What type of plant has double fertilization?

Angiosperms

What is double fertilization?

2 sperm nuclei move down pollen tube towards egg. 1 sperm cell fuses with egg to produce a zygote. The other sperm fuses with fused polar nuclei to from 3n endosperm

How is endosperm created?

1 sperm nuclei fuses with the polar cell which has 2 nuclei to form a 3n endosperm.

In an angiosperm, after fertilization, the ovule becomes a _________ and the ovary becomes a ___________.

seed /




fruit

What is a fruit?

mature, fertilized ovary

What is the function of fruit?

to protect and disperse seeds.

What are examples of fruits derived from one flower?

cucumber (pepo) /


peanut (legume=dry fruit) /


coconut (drupe) /


strawberry( aggregate fruit)

What is a "pepo" fruit?

A fruit developed from a single flower w/ multiple carpels. (ex. cucumber)

What is a legume?

A dry fruit (ex. peanut)

What is a drupe?

A fleshy fruit w/hard stony pit containing one seed. (ex. coconut, peaches, avocados)

What is an aggregate fruit?

fusion of multiple ovaries of the same flower (ex. strawberry and raspberries)

Fruits derived from multiple flowers are:

multiple fruits in one. (ex. pineapple- developed from clusters of flowers)



what is the function of endosperm?

Produces food for embryo.

What is a hormone?

Organic compound produced in one part of plant and transported to another part, where it elicits a response.

What is the function of hormones?

Influences development and physiological function

How do hormones work?

Chemical structure and concentration differences determine functional differences that stimulate or inhibit different responses.

What are the 5 classes of hormones?

1. Auxins /


2. Gibberellins /


3. Cytokinins /


4. Ethylene /


5. Abscisic acid

What is the main function of auxins?

regulate growth by triggering cell elongation.

Where are auxin usually produced?

apical meristem

Why does snipping off the shoot apical meristem create a bushier plant?

Because the hormone auxin produced in the SAM inhibits production of axillary buds.

What hormone is responsible for helping a plant to grow toward light? How does it do this?

Auxins! /




Auxin is released on dark side of shoot which results in cell elongation so that shoot will grow towards sunlight.

What is gravitropism?

Growth responses to gravity

What is thigmotropism?

Growth responses to touch.

What is the main function of gibberellins?

promote stem and leaf elongation by stimulating cells to divide and elongate.

What hormone can substitute for low temperature requirements in some plants?

gibberellins

What hormone can stimulate flowering in some plants?

gibberellins

What hormone can aid in larger fruit development?

gibberellins

What is the main function of cytokinins?

induces cytokinesis and promotes differentiation.

What hormone must be present in order for cells to divide?

cytokinins

What hormone can delay senescence? ( anti-aging effect?)

cytokinins

What is the main function of Ethylene?

stimulates fruit ripening and abscission (detachment of organ from plant body)

What is abscission?

detachment of organ from plant body

Where is ethylene produced when leaves are about to fall off trees?

abscission zone

What hormone is responsible for sprouting of potato buds?

Ethylene

Which plant hormone is in gas form?

Ethylene

What is the main function of abscisic acid?

promotes bud and seed dormancy /




promotes changes in plant tissues under stress /




or exposure to unfavorable conditions.

What is considered the stress hormone?

Abscisic Acid



What hormone is responsible for stomate closing in response to drought?

Abscisic Acid

What hormone promotes dormancy in response to harsh temperatures, osmotic stress, etc.?

abscisic acid

What hormone induces gene transcription especially for proteinase inhibitors in response to wounding?

Abscisic acid

What hormone(s) promotes seed germination?

Ethylene and gibberellins

What hormone is involved in plant responses to wounding or microorganism invasion?

Ethylene

What hormone interacts with auxin to control apical dominance?

Cytokinins

What hormone is involved in establishing partnerships between plant roots and beneficial bacteria and fungi (symbiotic relationships)?

cytokinins

What hormone is involved in chloroplast development?

cytokinins