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77 Cards in this Set

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-herbs, shrubs, trees or vines, often with lactifers, usually poisonous
-leaves: alternate, sometimes with paired nectar glands, usually with paired stipules
-flowers inflorescence usually highly modified, false flowers in Euphorbia- cyathia, flowers unisexualy
-pistil: superior, 3-lobed
-fruit: schizocarp
-distribution: wide, most diveres in tropics
-eco: castor bean, candlenut, tung tree, fish/arrow poisson, rubber or weeping tree, manioc, cassava, arrowroot, yucca, tapioca, ornamentals: croton, chenille plant, poinsettia, crown-of-thorns
- Spurge- Euphorbia, Ricinus, Hevea
Herbs, shrubs, or trees,
-leaves: alt or basal, leaves simple or lobed
-flowers: bisexual, strongly bilateral, 5 petals and sepals, abaxial with spur, cleistogamous
-stamens: 5 stamens form a ring around gynoecioum
-pistil: parietal placentation
-fruit: loculicial capsule, seeds often with an oily aril (eliasome)
-distribution: wide, mainly temperate herbs
-eco: ornamentals
Violet, Viola
-trees, shrubs, or sub-shrubs, with phenolic heterosides
-leaves: deciduous, alternate simple, teeth salicoid, lowermost bud scale centered over leaf scar
-flower: erect of pendant catkin, once considered primitive, engler combined salicaceae with Platanaceae, Juglandaceae, Betulaceae, and Fagaceae in “Amentiferae, flowers actually highly reduced and modified for wind pollination, staminate and pistillate flowers, unisexual, plants dioecious, flower subtended by hairy bract, sepals vestigial, petals lacking,
-pistil: superiory ovary
-fruit: loculidical capsule, seed with basal tuft of hairs
-distribution: wide, common in north-termperate to artic, moist to wet habitats
-eco: lumber, ornmanetals, medicine, osiers in basketry
Fabaceae: Legume or Pea; Albizzia, Pisum, Lupinus, Mimosa, Cercis
-herbs, shrubs, trees or vines, root nodules with n-fixing rhizobium
-leaves: alternate, pinnately or palmately compound, trifoliate or unifoliolate, leaflets modified into tendrils, stipules inconspicuous to leaf-like, pulvinus of leaf usually well developed
-flowers: bisexual, radial, bilateral with a short hypanthium, sepals 5, usually connate, petals 5 usually connate
*Three subfamilies have different aestivation patterns: Mimosoideae, Caesalpinoideae, Faboideae
-stamens: 1 to numerous, filaments moadelphous or diadelphous
-pistil: carpel 1, usually elongate, ovary superior and with a short gynophore
-fruit: legume (varies), different dispersal mechanisms
-distribution and ecology: nearly cosmopolitan
-eco: food (peanuts, chickpeas, soybeans, lentils, peas, beans) forage(alfalfa, clover, vetch), restoring nitrogen to soils, ornamentals, honey locust, wisteria, crown vetch, indigo, gums, resins
Wllow- Salix, Populus
-herbs, shrubs or trees, infrequently climbing, often cyanogenic, throns sometimes present, prickles
-leaves: usually alternate, simple to compound, usually stipules
-flowers: usually bisexual, radially symmetrical and showy, hypanthium: ranging from flat to cup or cylindrical, free or adnate to carples, enlargining in fruit, nectar ring inside, 5 sepals with epicalyx lobes, 5 petals
-stamens: usually numerous (5,10 or 15)
-pistil: carpels 1 to many, distinct or connate, sometimes adnate to hypanthium, ovary inferior or superior
-fruit: pome, drupelets, achene, drupe, capsule, follicle
-distribution: cosmo, northern hemi, deciduous forests, salt and freshwater marshes, tundra, old fields, roadsides
-eco: lots of temperate zone edible fruits, ornamentals, wood for furniture
Pyrus, Prunus, Spiraea, Fragaria, Rubus, Potentilla, Rosa,
Rose Family
herbaceous or soft woody vines
leaves: alt, simple, palmately lobed or veined, tendrils at nodes sometimes branches
flower: axillary, unisexual, monoecious or dioecious, radial, 5 lobed calyx and 5 lobed corolla (bell-shaped with a narrow tube and flaring lobes)
Stamen: 3-5, adnate to hypanthium, modified and with convoluted locules
Pistil: 3-carpellate, inferior to half inferior, parietal placentation, sometimes-short hypanthium
Fruit: fleshy or dry berry, rind sometimes hard and leathery, seeds flattened, seed coat with several layers
Distribution: widely in tropics and sub-tropics, a few temperate
Eco: edible fruits and seeds: pumpkins, squash, gourds, cucumbers, melons, cantaloupe, containers, loofah
Gourd Family
Cucurbita , Cucumis
Tree, shrubs,
Leaves: alternate, pinnate venation, often lobed or serrate, tannins, hairs simple or stellate, glandular scales
Flowers: unisexual, plant monoecious, staminate inflorescence a catkin, pistillate typically head-like cluster, tepals inconspicuous, staminate flowers with bract, pistillate in clusters with scaly or spiny cupule may be four valved
Stamen: 4 to many
Pistil: 3-carpellate, inferior ovary
Fruit: a nut, closely associated with a cupule
Distribution: wide in temperate and tropical region of N. Hemi, often dominate of climax forest
Eco: lumber, cork, edible nuts, ornamentals
Oak Family
Quercus Castanea, Fagnus
Tree or shrubs, tannins, bark with horizontal lenticels, bark thin, exfoliating in thin layers or strips
Leaves: alternate, simple, pinnate venation, with stipules, margins doubly serrate
Flower: an erect or pendant catkin, unisexual, monoecious, catkins with conspicuous bracts, 2-3 flowers associate with each bract (distinctive for each genus)
Fruit: achene, nut or 2-winged samara
Distribution: wide in temperate to boreal regions of N. Hemi, early successional habitats, wetlands, dominant in forests
Eco: edible nuts, timber and wood pulp, ornamentals
Alnus with roots nodules that have nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria
Birch Family, Betula, Ostrya, Alnus, Carpinus
Aromatic trees, oils and resins, tannins
Leaves: alternate, pinnately compound
Flowers: unisexual, monoecious, staminate in branched catkins, pistillate in small, errect spikes, tepals inconspicuous, each flower with bracts
Pistil: ovary adnate to bracts, inferior
Fruit: nut or nutlet(samara if bracts are wing-like) or drupe with an outer bony husk
Distribution: wide from tropics to temperate regions, important forest tree in southeastern US
Eco: timber, ornamentals, edible nuts (walnuts, pecans, hickory nuts)
Walnut Family- Carya, Juglans
-herbs, shrubs
-leaves: usually simples, pinnate venation
-flowers: usually with an elongate hypanthium, bisexual, 4 sepals and 4 petals,
-stamen: 8, pollen grains with viscin threads
-pistil: 4-carpellate ovary, inferior, stigma often 4-lobed or 4-branched
-fruit: loculicidal capsule, seeds sometimes with a wing or tuft of hair
-distribution: widely distributed, especially diverse in western N and S America
-eco: ornamentals with showy flowers
Evening Primose- Oenothera, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Clarkia
-herbs, shrubs, with mustard oil glycosides
-leaves: alternate, basal rosette, simple or pinnately dissected or lobed or pinnately or palmately compound
-flowers: bisexual, radial or somewhat bilateral, with prolgonged receptacle forming gynophore, 4 sepals, 4 petals, petals form a cross
-stamen: usually 6, 2 outer shorter than inner 4, tetradynamous
-pisitil: ovary superior, 2-carpellate, parietal placentation, placentas form a thick rim around fruit called replum, 2 carpels often connected by a false septum
-fruit: capsule with persistent septum: silique
-distribution: cosmo, many early successional, early spring bloomers
-eco: lots of edibles: kale, cabbae, broccoli, brussel sprouts, turnip, radishes, canola, mustards, horseradish, capers, many ornamentals
Mustard (Cruciferae)- Barbarea, Brassica, Cleome, Raphanus, Capsella, Lesquerella, Thlaspi
jMallow-Malvoideae, Hibiscu, Malva
-herbs, shrubs, trees, sap often mucilaginous
-leaves: alternate, simple, margins entire or lobed, usually palmately veined
-flowers: bisexual, radial, typically subtended by an epicalyx, speals 5 distinct or basally connate,5 petals, distinct but often basally adnate to androecium
-stamen: numerous, monadelphous, pollen grains spiny and large
-pistil: ovary superior, stigma lobed
-fruit: loculicidal capsule, schizocarp, seeds sometimes pubescent or comose (long silky hairs)
-distribution: nearly cosmo, particularly abundant in the American tropics
-Eco: okra, ornamentals, cotton
-trees, shrubs, lianas, well-developed resin canals, resin clear, drying black, often causing dermatitis
-leaves: usually alternate, pinnately compound, sometimes trifoliate or unifoliolate
-flowers: usually unisexual, plants dioecious, usually well-developed staminodes and carpelodes, radially symmetrical, 5 sepals, 5 petals
-stamens: 5-10
-pistil: ovary superior, asymmetrical
-fruit: drupe, flattened, asymmetrical, glandular-pubescent in Rhus, lop-sided (fruit as well)
-distribution: pantropical, with a few in temperate regions
-eco: edibles: mango, pistachio, cashew, some ornamentals, medically significant (resins)
Cahsew- Toxicodendron, Rhus
Define Evolution
genetic change over time
How is natural variation important
Heritable n.v. is essential to evolution (inhertiable by next generation and genetic change over time) creates new species
Size, color, markings, floral structure
What systematists do
identify group
understand diversity and relationships

Define Speciation
when variation between two groups becomes great enough that we identify them as different entities
Why is gene flow important
Not entirely clear; without sexual reproduction, not all angiosperms are the same
Self-reproduction, a-sexual reproduction, hybridization unlike higher animals (interbreeding individuals)
Not a linear evolutionary story
Define Species
an independent evolutionary lineage determined using a wide array of evidence
a. genetic changes manifested in this (accumulation of= anagenesis-cladogenesis (speciation))
b. morphology
The relative ability of an individual (or population) to survive, reproduce and propagate genes in an environment.
natural selection and adaptation
genetic responses to environment
common structural basis because of common evolutionary history
altering DNA
point, chromosomal alterations, aneuploidy/polyploidy
point mutatoin
new genes
chromosomal alterations
new combinations
gain or loss of chromosomes
How does these changes spread in a population
genetic recombination, random assortment of chromosomes into spores during meiosis, exchange of genetic material when homologs pair, rich source of variation
sources of variation
crossing over, independent assortment
crossing over
A process occurring during meiosis wherein two chromosomes pair up and exchange segments of their genetic material.
independent assortment
the process of random segregation and assortment of chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis resulting in the production of genetically unique gametes.
gene flow
can bring new genetic material into a population
factors decreasing variability
genetic drift, natural selection
genetic drift
The process of change in the genetic composition of a population due to chance or random events rather than by natural selection, resulting in changes in allele frequencies over time.
natural selection
A process in nature in which organisms possessing certain genotypic characteristics that make them better adjusted to an environment tend to survive, reproduce, increase in number or frequency, and therefore, are able to transmit and perpetuate their essential genotypic qualities to succeeding generations.
three models
-when sufficient genetic divergence occurs so that members of two populations can't mix advantageously
geographic speciation)
traditionally held view is that speciation is the result of gradual divergence (accumulation of small genetic changes)
(peripheral isolation)
small peripheral population diverges (subject to random genetic drift and slightly different environmental conditions)
divergence without separation
Speciation and gene flow
reproductive isolating mechanisms, distance
hybridization defined
mating between unrelated individuals
how is hybridization important to speciation
-source of novel gene combos, can diverge in either direction to cause speciation
-often associate with disturbance
-common in some gropus, not others
*can create complex patterns of morphological variation
back crossing of offspring with parentals
-can merge two species
-can increase genetic diversity in parentals
-hybrid can become stabilized
recognizing hybridization
-really difficult to sort our history
-even DNA evidence might not be conclusive if occurred long ago
diploid hybrid speciation
occurred in Helianthus
-diploid species A with diploid B create partly sterile diploid hybrid
-some fertility can be restored
polyploidy and speciation
-addition of a whole set of chromosome
-estimated 70% of angiosperms have a polypoidy ancestry
-additional chromosome sets mean additional genetic material-mutation and natural selection can now occur
auto v. allo
self v. other
classic example of allopolyploidy speciation
-weedy not native
-major role in food crops
Uniparetnal sexual reproduction
20-25% of taxa
-restricts gene flow
-complex patterns of variation
-challenges in defining species
-tend to be genetically uniform
*low genetic diversity, increased homozygosity
biparental sexual reproduction
-highly genetic diversity increased heterozygosity
asexual reproduction
if conditions are ba or along
vegetative reproduction
stolons, rhizomes, buds, fragments
asexual seed production
meiosis and fusion
diploid nucleus forms embryo
biological species concept
-interbreeding population
-coincident with morphology, ecology, geography
phonetic species concept
-overall similarity
-groups defined by gaps in variation
evolutionary species concept
recognition of evolutionary lineages
automorhpic species concept
-monophyletic groups
-species- descendants of common ancestry
-groups identified by shared derived characters
diagnosability species concept
-unique combos of character states
-phylogenetic species- diagnosable by unique combo of character states
-get to know the plants in the field
-combine data from as many sources as possible
-analyze data rigorously
-hypothesize speciation scenarios; test by observation and experimentation
*the category species is essential to non-systematist
Wiley 1978
evolutionary species concept
Sokal, Crovello 1970
phonetic species concept
biological species conetp
Mayr 1963