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 Body fluids are defined by what? (i) Volume (ii) Distribution (iii) Characteristics (iv) Functions The most abundant body fluid is WATER What is the variation % of the portion of water in one body? 45%-75% What is BODY WATER? BODY WATER = water content of an animal body= is contained in the tissues, the blood, the bones and elsewhere. = This water makes up a significant fraction of the human body, both by weight and by volume. How much is the BODY WATER compared to BODY MASS? ---Total Body Water = 60% of Body Mass--- => The heavier the person is, the more body water he has The water content is really SIGNIFICANT from Thin person to Fat person (45% vs 75%). Is the water content computed (calculated) by LEAN BODY MASS only (EXCLUDING the fat)? NO! If the water content is computed as a fraction of LEAN BODY MASS (i.e., EXCLUDING the FAT), the differences between individuals become INSIGNIFICANT. Which tissues have the SMALLEST proportion of water? * Bone* FAT How much is the proportion of WATER in fat person vs thin person? *FAT person -> LESS water (til 45%) *THIN person -> MORE water (til 75%) => The fatter the person is, the less water he has Standard Values for Physiological Reference Individual - Each must make adjustments for what? variations in Body Water depend on: AGE GENDER WEIGHT ETHNIC ORIGIN Body water as % of body mass between WOMEN and MEN: who has MORE DECREASE of body water? Women We use "Standard Values for Physiological Reference Individual" (% Water) (r) to calculate the ABSOLUTE AMOUNT OF WATER (V). Give an example w: weight (kg) V = r * w What does we use the ABSOLUTE AMOUNT OF WATER for? Calculate the constant of medication How is the BODY WATER Volume under conditions of health? It remains CONSTANT How many types of INTAKE of body water there is? 3 Eg of "Oxidative waterfrom metabolism" . Lose of water - How many ways we can lose water and the organs responsible for it? 2 waysOrgans:- Lungs- Skin- Kidneys What is the MAJOR HOMEOSTATIC ORGAN and why? KIDNEYS - since it takes part in both OBLIGATORY and FACULTATIVE losses OBLIGATORY and FACULTATIVE losses - How is one different to the other? Facultative losses VARY WITH INTAKE How an individual is in WATER BALANCE? Intake = Output Lose of water - CHILDREN vs ADULT - characteristics Children lose MORE water in a SHORTER period than men What is a NEGATIVE water balance? . INSENSIBLE PERSPIRATION vs SWEATING - What are there sources? INSENSIBLE PERSPIRATION= natural SWEATING = from hard work What is WATER INTOXICATION? . What is the true Milieu Interieur? INTERSTITIAL FLUID It is the fluid which percolates between individual cells How many compartments does BODY WATER has? What is the DYNAMIC STEADY STATE of the Body water? Body water helps the INTERACTION between:* The body <-with-> EXTERNAL environment * Compartments (in the INTERNAL environment) What is the DYNAMIC fashion (DYNAMIC STEADY STATE) for the compartments/ sub compartments' interaction? with WATER exchanging freely between them. What is ICF? ICF = Intracellular Fluid (a Body water compartment) What is ECF? ECF = Extracellular Fluid (a Body water compartment) While Total Body Water = 60% of Body Mass, how much is the ICF compared to BODY MASS = 40% of Body Mass While Total Body Water = 60% of Body Mass, how much is the ECF compared to BODY MASS = 20% of Body Mass Give an example between the weight and % of ECF, ICF in the body . Name the 4 subcompartmts of ECF cmap What is PLASMA? Plasma is the fluid medium, in which blood cells are suspended. What is HEMATOCRIT (Ht)? Hematocrit = that percentage of Blood Volume that is occupied by Red Blood Cells Ht= Packed Cell Volume (PCV) What does HEMATOCRIT represent? What is it normal value? . What are the 2 MAJOR SUBCOMPARTMENT of Body Water? Give and eg of the % of ECF & ICF - Interstitial Fluid- Plasma While Total Body Water = 60% of Body Mass, how much is the INTERSTITIAL FLUID (ISF) compared to BODY MASS. Give an eg 15% (I think) Link between lymph and ISF lymph = drainage of ISF Lymph volumn compared to ECF Lymph =~ 1-2% ECF What is a LYMPHATIC SYSTEM? (image) Final location of Lymphatic system? large veins in the chest Transcellular fluiddefinition Transcellular fluid volumn compared to ECF Transcellular fluid < ~ 1-2% ECF(while Lymph = ~ 1-2% ECF) What is the Relative Distribution between Compartments & Subcompartments of Body Water? Example of the Relative Distribution between Compartments & Subcompartments of Body Water BODY FLUIDS (including Body water) - Total Volume remain CONSTANT. T or F? T! BODY FLUIDS (including Body water) -Compartments are in a state of DYNAMIC Equilibrum T or F? T! Where is the capillary wall? Between ISF and Plasma Where is the cell membrane? Between ICF and ECF Methods to Determine Compartment Volumes - HOW MANY methods there are? 2 methods- Direct- Indirect What do you need to know to determine the volume of the compartment (V)? All one needs to know:(1) The total quantity of test substance introduced (Q)(2) The concentration of the substance/unit volume of fluid, after dispersion (c) What is it called (the way to determine a compartment V) and its equation? INDICATOR DILUTION METHODV = Q/c What is the normal V of Body Water? 42 L What is the indicator choice for solute used in the INDICATOR DILUTION METHOD? * Non-toxic * Diffuse readily * Distribute throughout compartment to be measured* Induce NO CHANGE in water distribution * Easy to measure Which indicators we use used for the ECF in the Indicator Dilution Method? (image) What is the normal value of ECF? ~ 14 L Which indicators we use used for the ICF in the Indicator dilution Method? (image) Which indicators we use used for the plasma in the Indicator dilution Method? * Evans' Blue (T1824)* I131-Albumin What is the normal value of plasma? ~ 3.5 L After calculating the voume of ICF and ECF, what is the volume of total body water Vw? Vw = ECF + ICF At the final result of Body Water, we have to make correction for what? For any amount which has been removed from body by metabolism or excretion during the mixing time Give equations to calculate V of each compartment of Body Water (image for the comparmt of BW) Vw = ICF + ECF ICF= Vw - ECFECT - Plasma = ISF Give the examples of normal value of ICF and ISF from the previous values mentioned for other compartments (image) UNIT OF CONCENTRATION in a solution (very important!) - It is characterized by what? 1. AMOUNT (MASS) of the solute the solution contains2. NUMBER OF SOLUTE MOLECULES of the solute the solution contains3. NUMBER OF REACTIVE UNITS (number of charges/ unit volume) of the solute the solution contains Example of AMOUNT (MASS) e.g., 1g% = 1g solute in 1dl of water1g NaCl in 100 ml water = 1% solution of NaCl 10g sucrose in 100 ml water = 10% solution of sucrose Example of NUMBER OF SOLUTE MOLECULES of the solute the solution contains . Example of NUMBER OF REACTIVE UNITS (number of charges/ unit volume) of the solute the solution contains .