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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
remains of once living species often found in strata
layers of rock formed from sedimentary material
study of fossils
Darwin's conclusions
1) organisms are related through common descent
2) adaptation to various environments through natural selection
study of distribution of life-forms on earth
formation of a new species
any characteristic that makes an organism more suited to its environment
natural selection
process of evolution of organisms well adapted to their environment
natural selection steps
1. members of the population have heritable variations
2. population produces more offspring than the resources of the environment can support
3. those with favorable traits survive and reproduce to a greater extent than those who lack the trait
4. across generations, more possess the favorable trait, and population becomes adapted to the environment
reproductive success of an individual relative to other members of the population
vestigial structures
anatomical features that are fully developed in one group of organisms but reduced and nonfunctional in other similar groups
homologous structures
similar structures explainable by inheritance from a common ancestor
analogous structures
serve the same function but are not constructed similarly and therefore cannot have the same ancestor
Developed idea that acquired characteristics can be inherited
Favored during natural selection, but not artificial selection

3) efficient seed dispersal
1) fast seed germination
2) short generation time
3) efficient seed dispersal
4) lean pork meat production
Natural selection is the only process that results in:

b) adaptation to the envionment
1) genetic variation
2) adaptation to the environment
3) phenotypic change
4) competition among individuals in a population
Why was it helpful to Darwin to learn that Lyell concluded the Earth is very old?

b) it was enough time for the same species to spread out into all continents
1) An old earth has more fossils than a new earth
2) it meant it was enough time for evolution to occur slowly
3) There was enough time for the same species to spread out into all continents
4) Darwin said artificial selection occurs slowly
5) all of the above
All the finches on the Galapagos Islands:

b & c are correct
a) are unrelated but descended from a common ancestor
b) are descended from a common ancestor and therefore are related
c) rarely compete for the same food source
d) a & c are correct
e) b & c are correct
The south American continent lacks rabbits, even though the environment is quite suitable
the human knee bone is the same for all organisms
the genetic code is the same for all organisms

The amino acid sequence of human hemoglobin is more similar to that of rhesus monkeys than to that of mice
Fossils that serve as transitional links allow scientists to

b) deduce the order in which various groups of animals arose
a) determine how prehistoric animals interacted with each other
b) deduce the order in which various groups of animals arose
c) relate climate change to evolutionary trends
d) determine why evolutionary changes occur
Among vertebrates, the flipper of a dolphin and the fin of a tuna are:

a) homologous
a) homologous
b) homogeneous
c) analogous
d) reciprical
Which of the pair is mismatched?

c) lamarck - uniformitarianism
a) darwin - natural selection
b) cuvier - series of catastrophes explains the fossil record
c) lamarck - uniformitarianism
d) all
According to the inheritance of acquired characteristics hypothesis:

e) all
a) if a man loses his hands, then his children will also be missing his hands
b) changes in pheotype are passed on by way of genotype to the next generation
c) organisms are able to bring about a change in their phenotype
d) evolution is striving toward particular traits
e) all

e) all
a) compete with other members of their species
b) differ in fitness
c) are adapted to their environment
d) are related by descent from common ancestors
e) all
DNA nucleotide differences between organisms:

e) all
a) indicate how closely related organisms are
b) indicate that evolution occurs
c) explain why there are pheotypic differences
d) are to be expected
e) all
The fossil record offers direct evidence for common descent because you can:

e) all
a) see that the types of fossils change over time
b) sometimes find common ancestors
c) trace the ancestry of a particular group
d) trace the biological history of living things
e) all
Molecular evidence is increasingly used today to establish relationships because:

d ) all
a) genes are composed of DNA
b) the more similar the genes, the more likely two organisms are related
c) this evidence is subject to opinion
d) all is correct
For there to be homologous structures:

a) a common ancestor had to have existed
a) a common ancestor had to have existed
b) analogous structures also have to exist
c) the bones have to be used similarly
d) all
Who founded paleontology?
Georges Cuvier
What things do organisms have?
Differ in fitness
Have become adapted
Struggle to exist
Who conceived the idea "the survival of the fittest"?
Russel Wallace
What is the only marsupial in the Americas?