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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Place thefollowing in order from largest to smallest :

Species,Phylum, Genus, Family, Kingdom, Class & Order

1. Kingdom

2. Phylum

3. Class & Order

4. Family

5. Genus

6. Species

List theClass, Kingdom and phylum that humans belong to


Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Inthe binomial system of nomenclature, what does the species name represent?

Species represents a descriptionof the organism.

E.g. humans belong to the Sapien species’ meaning “wise”

Listthe age of the Earth and the approximate date of the last universal commonancestor.

Earth’s age is approximately 4.6Billion years old. Life is thought to have evolved 3.9 billion years ago.

Describehow the movement of India north into China affected the climate in NorthernAfrica. Use a diagram to illustrate your answer.

The monsoonal rain that used toflow from SE Asia into Africa each summer was blocked by the land mass of India,forming the Himilayas when it collided with Asia. This caused the climate inNorthern Africa to significantly dry out, forming the Sahara Desert eventually.

Whatis the name for the common ancestor of all life on Earth?

LUCA-Last Universal CommonAncestor

Name the three main theories that predict how life first evolved on Earth.

Panspermia, Thermal Black Smokers, Shallow Tidal Pools

Describe Panspermia

Simple bacteria life was“seeded” on an in-coming meteorite. This simple life then evolved into what wehave today.

Describe Thermal Black Smokers

Underwater sea ventsrelease heat and sulfur compounds. These factors led to the formation of simpleorganic substance, which in turn, gave rise to the first life forms to evolve.

Describe Shallow Tidal Pools

Conditions such as simpleinorganic molecules such as water and salts, as well as energy from the sun andpossibly lightning, produced the first simple organic molecules. Theseeventually gave rise to the first life forms

Explainwhy the Eastern coastline of Australia receives more rainfall than inlandregions. (Use the terms orographic rain, prevailing wind directions, leeward,windward and due point temperature)

South Easterly prevailing windscarry moist air, from evaporated water, from the ocean. This moist air coolswhen it is forced to rise over mountain ranges. This cooling causes the moistair to condense) into water droplets which eventually fall as precipitation.The windward side of the mountain receives more rain than the leeward side asthe air on the leeward side is relatively dry.

Explain whatthermohalinecirculation is and outline how it can potentially affect global weatherpatterns, especially the Western coast of Europe and Great Britain.

Thisis the circulation of surface salt water in the oceans from the equator towardsthe poles. Near the poles the salt water cools then sinks. Slowly the coldwater makes its way back along the bottom of the oceanic floor to the equator.This sets up a continuous cycle.

E.g. if the Gulf stream off the western coast ofGreat Britain was to halt, Great Britain could potentially experience a miniice age.

Explain the Greenhouse Effect

Incomingsolar radiation loses some of its energy when it hits the ground turninginto heat (IR radiation). This heat is trapped by greenhouse gases such ascarbon dioxide. This heats up the Earth

What do scientists think is the cause of Climate Change?

Gradualincreases in the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide gas produced by human activity.

OutlineDarwin’s and Wallace’s contributions to the theory of Evolution.

Thesescientists independently developed the theory of evolution due to naturalselection. Evolution is the gradual change in an organism's characteristics through time inresponse to a gradual change in the environment.

Definebiodiversity and explain why it is important to the theory of evolution.

This describes the multitude ofdifferent life forms with vast variation found on Earth. With reducedbiodiversity, organisms have less chance to evolve. Organisms with more variation have morechance of having the traits needed to survive in a changing environment, theythus have more chance to evolve and survive.

What are themain causes of genetic variation?

Sexual reproduction and mutations(that can have a positive effect in terms of enabling survival).

Usingthe theory of natural selection, explain how Giraffes evolved from gazelles.

As the bushland environment beganto dry out, more pressure was placed on eating vegetation contained within thetrees. Naturally longer necked gazelles had an advantage in reaching thesetrees. They tended to survive and pass on their “long-necked “trait to theiroffspring. Through time the giraffes evolved.

Explainhow Lamarck’s theory differed from Darwin’s.

Lamarck based his theory on the use anddisuse of body parts to explain how giraffes with longer necks survived VS. Darwin’s theory that used genetic difference to explain their evolution

What are fossils and how can they be used as evidence for evolution?

Afossil is an impression, cast, original material or track of any animal orplant that is preserved in rock after the original organic material istransformed or removed.

Theseshow the gradual change in organism’s characteristics through time.

What is DNA Hybridisation and how can it be used as evidence for evolution?

It's a molecular biology technique that measures the degree of genetic similarity between pools of DNA sequences.

Thisanalysis shows that related species (E.g. Chimp and Human) share largepercentages of DNA in common. This shows they have diverged from a commonancestor relatively recently.

What is Immunological Studies and how it they be used as evidence for evolution?

Thisshows that related species have similar immunological responses to a specificdisease.

How can Protein Comparisons be used as evidence for evolution?

Relatedspecies share common proteins.

E.g. Chimps and humans have exactly the sameproteins.

How can Biogeographical Evidence be used as evidence for evolution?

Relatedspecies are often found in similar geographical areas. (If the areas are vastlyspread out, Continental Drift may be the cause. E.g. Southern Beech tree inGondwana land masses)

How can HomologousStructures be used as evidence for evolution?

Relatedspecies share common physical characteristics.

E.g. the fore limbs of manyvertebrates such as bats, dogs, seal, whale, bird and human have a pentadactyl (5digit) limb

How can Vestigial Organs be used as evidence for evolution?

Theseare organs which are no longer in use, but use to be used in our ancestors.These organs show that we have evolved from a slightly different organism. Egappendix in humans.

Explainhow the following finches evolved from the ancestral seed eating finch:

Leaves, Buds/Fruit, Insects, Grubs & Tool Using

The seed gathering finch migratedfrom Chile to the Galapagos Islands. It found itself in slightly differentenvironments having to adapt to different food sources. This leads to theevolution of different characteristics.

How does bacteria resistance to antibiotics occur?

Bacteria have slowly builtup a resistance to the antibiotic being used. Initially the antibiotic killsmost of the bacteria, but some, the resistant ones, survive. These resistantbacteria breed and tend to pass on their resistant trait to their offspring.Eventually a resistant strain of bacteria is found. This is an example ofevolution

this figure to explain how the colouration proportions of the peppered moth
change pre and post Industrial Revolution.

Usethis figure to explain how the colouration proportions of the peppered mothchange pre and post Industrial Revolution.

Pre-industrial revolution thetree bark was light in colour. This enabled the lightly coloured peppered mothsto survive as they were better camouflaged against bird predators. Then duringthe industrial revolution, the tree bark darkened due to the accumulation ofsoot on it. This suited the darker forms of the peppered moth as they were nowcamouflaged. Thus the proportions switched and now the darker forms became moreprevalent. This is a modern example of Evolution.

ExplainPlate Tectonics Theory and provide evidence for it, including fossil evidence.

Evidence of a supercontinent that separated,like a jigsaw, pieces are linked through similar rock structures found acrosscontinents as well as plant and animal species, including Mesosaurus.

Whatis a fossil? Name some types. What extraordinary fossil is said to support alink to modern day birds

A fossil is the remains of organisms that havebeen preserved (Body Fossils, Trace Fossils). Archeopteryx gives evidence to link to birds