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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Change over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
a well-supported testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world
the preserved remains of ancient organisms
Artificial Selection
a process by which nature provided genetic variation in organisms, and humans select those variations that they find useful.
Struggle for existence
the competition within a species for resources, such as food, living space, and other necessities of life.
How suitable an organism is to survive
a inherited trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
Survival of the fittest
A theory developed by Darwin, that states organisms more fit for their specific environment (adaptations) survive and reproduce more successfully than those without
Natural Selection
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully
Descent with modification
the theory that all species have descended, with changes, from other species over time
Common descent
The principle that states that all species- living and nonliving- were derived from a common ancestor.
Homologous structures
Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissue; provides strong evidence that all 4 limbed vertebrates have descended.
Vestigial organs
traces of organs in other species; organs that do not serve a function
Gene pool
common group of genes (all alleles) that are present in a specific population
Relative frequency
the number of times an allele appears in a gene pool
Single gene trait
a trait that is controlled by one one gene, such as a widows peak
Polygenic trait
traits that are controlled by two or more genes, which usually has two or more alleles
Formation of new species
genetic drift
random change in allele frequency
founder effect
a situation in which allele frequencies change as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
genetic equilibrium
when allele frequencies remain the same
Hardy-Weinberg principle
states that allele frequency in a population will remain constant unless one or more factors cause these frequencies to change
Reproductive Isolation
when 2 populations cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Directional selection
when individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end
stabilizing selection
when individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end of the curve
disruptive selection
when individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle
behavioral isolation
when 2 pop. are capable of interbreeding but have different mating behavior
geographic isolation
when 2. pop are seperated by a geographical barrier
temporal isolation
when 2 or more species reproduce at different times