• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

- Changed the course of plant evolution

- Enabled plants to become the dominant producers in most terrestrial ecosystems

- Originated about 360 millions years ago

- Embryo

- Nutrients surrounded by a protective coat

Seed consists of? (2)

- Reduced size of gametophytes

- Heterospory

- Ovules

- Pollen

4 Common Characteristics of Seed Plants
- Develop within the sporangia that are retained within tissues of the parent sporophyte
- Term referring to the ability to produce male and female gametophyte in one plant

- Structure that retains the female gametophytes within parent

- Structure that allows male gametophyte to self-fertilize or travel
Byrophytes (Mosses)
For _______, gametophytes are dominant and sporophytes are reduced and dependent on gametophyte for nutrition
Seedless vascular plants (Ferns)
For ____, gametophytes are reduced and independent photosynthetic free-living. Sporophytes are dominant.
Seed plants

For _____, gametophytes are reduced and usually microscope, dependent on surrounding sporophyte tissue for nutrition. Sporophyte is dominant.

1. Homosporous

2. Heterosporous

Ancestors of seed plants were ____1____ while seed plants were ____2____.

- Produce megaspores that give rise to female gametophytes

- Produce microspores that give rise to male gametophytes

- Megasporangium (2n)

- Megaspore (n)

- Integuments (2n)

Ovule consists of? (3) Indicate whether they are haploid/diploid


- Surrounding protection for ovule

- Becomes seed coat

1. Gymnosperms

2. Angiosperms

______1_______ megaspores have one integument and ____2____ megaspores have two integuments
Pollen grains

- Develop from microspores that contain male gametophytes

- When it germinates, gives rise to a pollen tube that discharges sperm into female gametophyte within the ovule


- Transfer of pollen to the part of a see plant containing the ovules

- Can be dispersed great distances by air or animals and does not require water

- Survive better than unprotected spores,

- May remain dormant until conditions are favorable for germination

- Supply of stored food

- Can be transported long distances by wind or animals

4 Evolutionary Advantages of Seeds

- Clade of seeded plants that are better suited to drier conditions than nonvascular plants

- "Naked seeds"

- Seeds are exposed on sporophylls that form cornes


- Clade of seeded plants that dominate more terrestrial ecosystems

- Seeds are found in fruits which are mature ovaries

- Reproductive structures called flowers and fruits

- Most widespread and diverse of all plants

- Cone-bearing gymnosperms and dominate northern latitudes

- Cycadophyta (Cycads)

- Gingkophyta (Gingko biloba)

- Gnetophyta (Gnetum, Ephedra, Weiwitschia)

- Coniferophyta (Conifers - Pine, fir, redwood)

4 Phyla of Gymnosperms
- Phyla of angiosperms



2 Key adaptations of angiosperms


- Angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction

- Specialized shoot with up to four types of modified leaves

- Many species are pollinated by insects or animals while some species are wind-pollinated

- Sepals

- Petals

- Stamen

- Carpels

- Modified structure that enclose the flower

- Brightly colored and attract pollinators

- Produce pollen

- Produce ovules

- Filament: Stalk

- Anther: Sac where pollen is produced

2 Structures of Stamen and what they are

- Ovary: base

- Style: Structure that connects

- Stigma: Receives pollen

3 Structures of Carpel and what they are

- Typically consists of a mature ovary but can also include other flower parts

- Protect seeds and aid in their dispersal

- Can be either fleshy or dry

- Adaptations help disperse seeds

1. Flower

2. Pollen grains

3. Microsporangia

4. Anthers

5. embryo sac

6. ovule

7. stigma

8. cross-pollination

The ___1___ of the sporophyte is composed of both male and female structures. Male gametophytes are contained within __2__ produced by the __3__ of __4__. The female gametophyte called __5__ develops within __6__ contained within an ovary at the base of a __7__. Most flowers have mechanisms to ensure __8__ from different plants of the same species.

1. Flower

2. Sporophyte

3. Pollen grains

4. micro

5. Embryo sac

6. Cross-pollination

The ___1___ of the ___2___ is composed of both male and female structures. Male gametophytes are contained within __3__ produced by the ___4__sporangia of anthers. The female gametophyte - the __5__ - develops within an ovule contained within an ovary at the base of a stigma. Most flowers have mechanisms to ensure __6__ between flowers from different plants of the same species.

- Animal Herbivory selects for plant defenses

- Interactions between pollinators and flowering plants select for mutually beneficial adaptations

2 Evolutionary Links between angiosperms and animals

- Key sources of food, fuel, wood products and medicine

Seed plants are key sources of? (4)

Seed plants

Group of plants most important to human survival

- Our reliance makes preservation critical


Most of our food comes from what type of seed plant?-

- Wheat

- Rice

- Maize

- Potato

- Cassava

- Sweet potato

6 Crops yield 80% of the calories consumed by humans

Moderns Crops

- Products of relatively recent genetic change resulting from artificial selection

Secondary compounds

- Substance from seed plants that are used in medicines

1. 55,000

2. 200

3. Animal

Destruction of habitat is causing extinction of many plant species. In the tropics, ___1___km2 are cleared each year. At this rate the remaining tropical forests will be eliminated in __2__ years. Loss of plant habitat is often accompanied by loss of the __3__ species that plants support.

1. 50%

2. 100-200

3. Tropical rain forests

At the current rate of habitat loss: __1__% of Earth's species will become extinct within the next __2__ years.

The ____3____ may contain undiscovered medicinal compounds.

- Eye pupil dilator

- Heart medication

- Throat soother

- Malaria preventive

- Ovarian cancer drug

- Muscle relaxant

- Leukemia drug

7 uses of Plant-Derived Medicines