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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a seed?
consists of an embyo and its good supply, surrounded by a protective coat.
consists of an embyo and its good supply, surrounded by a protective coat.
Characteristics of Seed plants
*reduced gametophyte
What is the advantage of seed adaptions?
* resistant to desiccation
*resistant to UV exposure
*reproduction away from moist conditions
What is the advantage of a reduced gametophyte?
gametophyte can develop from spores retained within the sporangia of the parent sporophyte.
what constructs an unfertilized ovule?
the megasporangium(2n) containing the megaspore(n) (f gametophyte/egg) is surround by a tissue layer of integument(2n).
layer of sporophyte(2n) tissue around megasporangium(2n).
*Gymnosperms have 1
*angiosperms have 2
Seed plant phylums
pollen grain
male gametophyte (n) (sperm) enclosed within a pollen wall
Transfer of pollen to the ovules. Not considered fertilization.
Characteristics of Gymnpsperms
*seeds not enclosed in ovaries
*seeds exposed on modified leaves (sporophylls) that usually form cones (strobili)
What was the transition from seedless to seed gymnosperms?
*woody stem with no seeds
*gymnosperms dominated the Mesozoic
Phylum Cycadophyta
*2nd largest group
*large cones and palm-like leaves
Phylum Ginkophyta
Ginkgo biloba is the only surviving species
*tolerates air polllution
*trees have different sexes
Phylum Gnetophyta
*Gnetum, 35 spc
*Ephedra, 40 spc
*Welwitchia1 spc
*grouped based on molecular data
Phylum Coniferophyta
*largest phylum
*600 spc
*Doulas fir, European larch, Common Juniper, Wollemi pine (40 individuals left), Seqoia (largest organism), Bristlecone pine (oldest organism)
Megasporocyte ploidy level
within megasporangium
Megasporangium ploidy level
megaspore ploidy level
develops into female gametophyte and contains the archegonium/ia which will form the egg
Characteristics of Angiosperms
Flowers and fruits (mature ovaries)
specialized structures for sexual reproduction
Pollination Vectors
Insects or other animals, wind dependent, water dependent
modified leaves that enclose the bud
brightly colored, aid in attracting pollinators
Produce microspores that develop into pollen grains containing m gametophytes
Parts of the stamen
Filament= the stalk of the stamen
Anther = terminal sac where pollen is produced
Produce megaspores (which produce female gametophytes)
Single or multiple carpels
Parts of the Carpel
Stigma=sticky tip that receives pollen
Style= leads from the stigma to the ovary
Ovary= contains 1+ ovules, when fertilized becomes a seed.
a pore that the pollen penetrates through to reach the ovule
How many sperm are in a pollen grain
two, one for the egg, one fuses with the two nuclei of the f gametophyte
Double Fertilization
Fertilization produces one Zygote, and a triploid cell
rudimentary seed leaves
either one or two
what the triploid cell of f gamtetophyte develops into. Is rich in nourishment for the developing embryo.
Archaefructus liaoningensis/ archefructus stnensis
ancient sngiosperms
* has stamen and carpels but lacks petals and sepals
* went back to aquatic enviro
*spiral formation of leaves
Basal Anglosperms
Oldest lineages
*Amborella (amborella trichopoda) lacks vessels
*Water lily
*star anise
spiral arrangement of pedals
one cotyledon
parallel veins
scattered vascular tissue
fibrous root system
one opening in pollen grain
floral organs in m of 3
two cotyledons
net like veins
ringed vascular tissue
three openings in pollen grain
floral organs in m of 4 or 5