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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Particulargroups, or species, of living things can undergo modification in successivegenerations, with such change sometimes resulting in the formation of new,separate species is regarded as

Common descent with modification or First Evolutionary Theory Principle

The process through which traits that confer a reproductiveadvantage to individual organisms grow more common in populations of organismsover successive generations; It's the most important process of evolution.

Natural Selection or the Second Evolutionary Theory Principle

Darwin began to perceive common descent with modification through

the infinite branching of evolution

Darwin saw organisms evolve in the direction of the favorable variations, which he termed

natural selection

Theses genetic alterations can take place, showing up as new physical traits, which can be passed on to new generations.


The convergence of several lines of biological research into a unified evolutionary theory is termed

modern synthesis

A general set of principles supported by evidence that explains some aspect of the natural world is known as


The study of the physical forms that organisms take is called


If it is the same in structure owing to inheritance from a common ancestor, it is called


A structure in an organism whose original function has been lost during the course of evolution is called

vestigial character

A group of organisms that can successfully interbreed with one another in nature but that don't successfully interbreed with members of other such groups is called


All the members of a species that live in a defined geographic region at a given time is called a


All the alleles that exist in a population is called a

gene pool

A change of allele frequencies in a population over a relatively short period of time is known as


Any genetically based phenotypic change in a population of organisms over successive generations is known as


Evolution that results in the formation of new species or other large groupings of living things is called


Name the five agents of microevolution.

1. mutation

2. gene flow

3. genetic drift

4. sexual selection

5. natural selection

The movement of alleles from one population to another is which agent of microevolution?

gene flow

the movement of individuals from one population into the territory of another is called


The random chance alteration of gene frequencies in a population that has a greater effect on small populations is which agent of microevolution?

genetic drift

One form of genetic drift is ___ where the populations can be greatly reduced through disease or natural disaster or occurs due to a change in allele frequency due to a sharp population reduction.


A second form of genetic drift is ___ where a small subset of a population can migrate to start a new population, even one member.

founder effect

Which agent of microevolution occurs when some members of a population mate more often than other members?

sexual selection

Which agent of microevolution occurs when some individuals will be successful than others in surviving and reproducing for a better fit in their environment?

natural selection

A modification in the form, physical functioning, or behavior of organisms in a population over generations in response to environmental change is known as


The success of an organism in passing on its genes to offspring is called


The intermediate forms of a given character are favored over extreme forms is called the

stabilizing selection

When natural selection moves a character toward one of its extremes such as hominins is called

directional selection

When natural selection moves a character toward both of its extremes is called

disruptive selection (is less frequent)

What concept relies on the sexual breeding behavior of populations in nature?

biological species concept

Which two kingdoms are not species because they reproduce by cell division and not breeding?

bacteria and archaea

The development of new species through evolution is termed


What speciation occurs when geographical barriers divide a population and the resulting population becomes a separate species?

allopatric speciation

Any factor that, in nature, prevents interbreeding between individuals of the same species or of closely related species.

reproductive isolating mechanism

A barrier to interbreeding of populations that is not an inherent characteristic of the organisms in the populations such as rivers.

extrinsic isolating mechanism

What type of isolation prevents interbreeding due to living in different locations?

geographical isolation

A difference in anatomy, physiology, or behavior that prevents interbreeding between individuals of the same species or of closely related species.

intrinsic isolating mechanism

Name the six intrinsic isolating mechanisms.

1. ecological isolation

2. temporal isolation

3. behavioral isolation

4. mechanical isolation

5. gametic isolation

6. hybrid inviability

Name the intrinsic isolating mechanism.

Species live in the same place, but cannot mate if they don't make contact.

ecological isolation

Name the intrinsic isolating mechanism.

Species live in the same place, but they can't mate because breeding times differ.

temporal isolation

Name the intrinsic isolating mechanism.

Species breed at the same time, but don't mate because they are not attracted.

behavioral isolation

Name the intrinsic isolating mechanism.

Species are attracted, but they can't mate if not physically compatible.

mechanical isolation

Name the intrinsic isolating mechanism.

Species are physically compatible, but the egg and sperm do not fuse properly.

gametic isolation

Name the intrinsic isolating mechanism.

Even if fertilization occurs, the offspring may not survive or reproduce such as donkeys.

hybrid inviability or infertility

A speciation that does not involve geographic separation is called

sympatric speciation

The rapid evolution of many species from a single species that has been introduced to a new environment is called

adaptive radiation

binomial nomenclature groups Earth's organisms by two names:

1. genus

2. species

The diversity and relatedness of organisms is called


The organisms in any category that make up a group of living things is called a


Name the 7 classifications of the taxonomic system.

1. kingdom

2. phylum

3. class

4. order

5. family

6. genus

7. species

Which branch of systematics determines the order of branching events in speciation?