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28 Cards in this Set

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A definition of species that relies on the breeding behavior of populations in nature. It defines species as groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups.
biological species concept
The development of new species through evolution.
Speciation that involves the geographic separation of populations. Most speciation involves geographic separation, followed by the development of intrinsic isolating mechanisms in the separated populations.
allopatric speciation
Any factor that, in nature, prevents interbreeding between individuals of the same or closely related species.
reproductive isolating mechanisms
A barrier to interbreeding of populations that is not an inherent characteristic of the organisms in the populations. Geographic barriers such as rivers are extrinsic isolating mechanisms.
extrinsic isolating mechanism
A difference in anatomy, physiology, or behavior that prevents interbreeding between individuals of the same species or of closely related species.
intrinsic isolating mechanism
A type of speciation that occurs in the absence of the geographic separation of populations.
sympatric speciation
A form of sympatric speciation in which one or more sets of chromosomes are added to the genome of an organism.
The rapid emergence of many species from a single species that has been introduced to a new environment. The different species specialize to fill available niches in the new environment.
adaptive radiation
The system of naming species that uses two names (genus and species) for each species. This system helps identify groupings among living things.
binomial nomenclature
The field of biology dealing with the diversity and relatedness of organisms. These people study the evolutionary history of groups of organisms.
The highest-level taxonomic grouping of organisms. There are only three domains: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.
Any of the taxonomic categories used in the classification of Earth's organisms, both living and extinct. In order of increasing inclusiveness, these categories are species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and domain.
A hypothesis about the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms.
A structure that is shared in different organisms owing to inheritance from a common ancestor.
A structure found in different organisms that is similar in function and appearance but is not the result of shared ancestry.
Evolution that occurs when similar environmental influences shape two separate evolutionary lines in similar ways.
convergent evolution
The branch of systematics that uses shared derived characters to determine the order of branching events in speciation and therefore which species are most closely related.
An evolutionary tree constructed using the cladistic system.
A character that existed in the common ancestor of a group of organisms. Cladistics distinguishes ancestral from derived characters and uses these characters to determine evolutionary relationships.
ancestral character
A character unique to groupings of organisms (taxa) descended from a common ancestor.
derived character
A taxonomic grouping subordinate to phylum and subordinate to order.
A taxonomic grouping subordinate to order and superordinate to genus.
A taxonomic grouping of related species. This category is subordinate to family and superordinate to species.
A taxonomic grouping superordinate to every other grouping except domain.
A taxonomic grouping subordinate to class and superordinate to family.
A category of living things, directly subordinate to the category of kingdom, whose members share traits as a result of shared ancestry.
A group of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such populations.