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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back


Endergonic or Exergonic?


Atp -> ADP

Exergonic or endergonic?


Explain Endosymbiosis

The idea that the mitochondria came first, mitochondria and chloroplast were first bacteria when they came into eukaryotes. But mitochondria came first

How does phosphorylation of ADP work?

A phospate group is simply added to ADP to make ATP

Whats the name for mitosis in prokaryotes?

Binary fission

What does cyclin and cdk do when it comes to the cell cycle

They help transition it from phase to phase

Explain Epigenetics

It's when the gene expression are changed but not the nucleotide sequence

High ----> Low is


Low -----> High is

Active transport

What can diffuse easily across the membrane

Small nonpolar molecules

What is RRNA

A ribozyme

What is a steriod

A carbohydrate

6 steps of gene expression with Eukaryotes

- Chromatin remolding

- Transcriptional level

- MRNA Processing level

- MRNA stability level

- Translational level

-Post-translational level

Chromatin remolding

when chromatin switches from condensed to decondesnsed


DNA + Proteins that make up eukaryotic chromosomes


DNA double helix that wraps twice around histone proteins

Condensed Chromatin

Genes are not accesible to RNA polymerase

DNA Methylation

Condensed, no transcription, adds a methyl group to nucleotide

DNA Demethylation

Decondensed, yes transcription, removes methyl group from nucleotide

What happens when histone is acetylated

Chromatin is decondensed so yes to transcription

What happens when you remove acetyl from histone

The chromatin becomes condensed so no to transcription


Change in gene expression but nucleotide sequence stays the same

When are genes inaccesible to RNA Polymerase

When chromatin is condensed

What does the promoter regions (TATA BOX) in transcription level bind?

They bind basal transcription factors such as tata binding protein and RNA polymerase with other proteins. Which forms the basal transcription complex

What regulated the activity of the basal transcription complex?

Regulatory DNA sequence that bind Regulatory transcription factors

3 types of regulatory DNA sequences

-Promoter proximal elements


- Silencers

Explain promoter proximal elements

DNA sequences located near the promoter that binds positive regulatory proteins (transcriptional activators) or negative regulatory proteins (transcriptional repressors)

Explain Enhancers

DNA sequences located far away from the promoter and binds positive regulatory proteins (transcription activators)

Explain Silencers

DNA sequences far away from the promoter that binds negative regulatory proteins (transcription repressors)

What are regulatory factors?

Proteins that bind to regulatory DNA sequences

What do proximal elements do?

They interact with the basal transcription complex to increase or decrease transcription

What does DNA bending do?

Brings Transcriptional activators that bind to enhancers and transcriptional repressors that bind to silencers closer to the BASAL COMPLEX TRANSCRIPTION

Whats does Eukaryotic MRNA Processing include?

it includes splicing

How do cells regulated gene expression at MRNA processing

By splicing

What's so special about one primary transcript

It can splice in several different ways making different version of spliced MRNAS making different proteins

Explain MRNA stability level

Mrna goes to cytoplasm, then the stability can be controlled by different mechanisms and also Mrna can be attacked by two things

1. RNA destroying enzymes

2. MicroRna that binds to Mrna and cuts them

What can control the life time of MRNA?

Poly (A) tail length

Certain Mrna's are attacked by _______


What do MicroRna's do

They bind to specific MRNA'S and cut them

When can the binding of mircorna's to mrna's happen?


Translational level

Phosphorylation of some ribosomal proteins make ribsome unable to translate most MRNA'S

How can some mirco RNA'S control translation?

by blocking the progress of the ribosomal along the MRNA

When does the blocking the progress of ribosomal along the mRNA occur?

When the sequence of MicroRNA is not a math with MRNA

What are the common mechanisms for post-translational level?

- Not folding well

-Not sending it to the final destination

-Modifications such as phosphorylation, glycoslation or binding to other proteins


Gene expression

Making the final functional product from a gene

How do cells in different tissues look and behave differently from each other if they have the same genes?

Differential gene expression, basically even though the geneses are the same in all cells they are not expressed the same way


Condensed (packed) chromatin, contains inactive genes, no transcription


Decondensed (unpacked) chromatin, contains actively transcribing genes. Transcription yes

Which ones have condensed (packed) chromatin and what happens here

-DNA methylated

-Histone deactylated


-No trascription

Which ones have decondensed (unpacked) chromatin and what happens here

-Dna demethylated

-Histone accetylated


-Yes transcription

What happens when theres no tumor supressor protein?

Uncontrollable cell devision happens which leads to cancer

Whats the good news about Epigenetic inheritance

Modification can reverse themselves during meiosis

What is the bad news about Epigenetic inheritance?

Some modifications will be passed down to your kids

3 types of regulatory DNA sequence

1. Promoter proximal elements (near promoter)

2. Enhancers

3. Silencers

2 types of regulatory transcription factors

1. Transcription activators: Increase transcription

2. Transcription repressors: Decrease transcription

Explain gene therapy

Take genes out of your body inject cells into it then inject the now new modified genes back into your body

What does Lac-Z gene make?

Beta- galactosidase

What does lac Y gene make?


What are differential gene expressions

specific genes transcribe differently in different cells at different times

3 levels of gene expression in bacteria

1.Transcriptional level

2.Translational level

3. Post- translational level (control of expression after proteins are made)

What do ribozymes do?

Catalyze peptide bond formations

What do E.coli prefer to use other than lactose?


Negative control

Glucose present

Lactose absent


Cluster of genes controlled by ONE promoter


Transporter to take lactose into the cell


An enzyme to breakdown lactose to glucose and galactose

What does Lac-I gene produce?


How does the repressor block transcription?

By binding to the operator

Explain negative control

Repressor binds to the operators which blocks transcription and this happens when glucose is used over lactose

Removal of negative control

Glucose is present

Lactose is present

Explain removal of negative control

Lactose enters the cells with the help of permease then the lactose binds onto the repressor. It changes the shape of the repressor which forces the repressor to fall off and transcription can start

What happens when glucose and lactose are present?

E.coli will still prefer glucose to negative control happens

What inhibits the entry of lactose into the cell by inhibiting permease?

High level of glucose

Explain positive control

regulatory proteins trigger transcription

What does lac operon include

A promoter, and operator, lac genes and an terminator