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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

what do you call any living thing?


what does SPONCH stand for?

elements that are essential for all living things

name the elements in sponch

sulfur, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen

what does form follows function mean?

shape helps to perform it job most efficiently

how are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells different

p- no nucleus, no organelles, been around for 3.8 billion years

e- has a nucleus, has organelles, been around for 1 billion years

what is the phospholipid bilayer?

makes up cell membrane

what two places in the cell have a phospholipids bilayer?

cell membrane and nucleus

what does it mean that the cell membrane is selectively permeable

only certain things can enter

what is the difference between passive and active transport?

passive transport- no energy

active transport- energy required to move materials

what are the two types of passive transport?

osmosis- movement of water

diffusion- movement of everything other than water

passive transport goes __ with the concentration gradient. Materials flow from areas of __ concentration to areas of __ concentration until __ is reached.

with, high, low, equilibrium

what are the 5 types of active transport?

exocytosis- moving materials out of cell

endocytosis- moving materials inside of cell

---phagocytosis: taking in solids (foods)

---pinocytosis: taking in liquids

---receptor mediated endocytosis: use receptors on cell to take in materials

Active transport goes __ the concentration gradient. Materials flow from areas of __ concentration to __ concentration. __ is __ reached.

against, low, high, equilibrium, never

selectively permeable

cell membrane

largest organelle in the cell


round dark spot in nucleus


surrounds the nucleus

nuclear membrane/ envelope

maze-like network fused to nucleus


attached to E.R. and makes proteins


where are ribosomes found in the cell?

cytoplasm or E.R.

protein packaging plant for the cell


have digestive acids/ enzymes in a sac


microtubules provide support and shape for the cell


have stacks called thylakoids


large organelle that makes energy for the cell


how are chloroplasts and mitochondria similar?

-both produce energy or food to break down for energy

-have their own DNA

-mitochondria has infoldings to increase surface area and chloroplasts have stacks to increase surface area

membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal


why is respiration the opposite of photosynthesis?

people take in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide while trees and plants take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen

name 4 functions of proteins

structural, enzymes, transport, antibodies, hormones, contractile

what is the function of sensory receptors in your body?

nerve cells sense pain/heat/etc. --- sends message to brain --- brain sends message to body to respond

abiotic and biotic factors

abiotic- nonliving

biotic- living or once living

climax community

end of succession, stability, biodiversity

food webs

arrows point to what is consuming prey/plants

ex: plants--> squirrels--> coyote

nitrogen fixation

org. cannot use pure nitrogen, bacteria adds oxygen to nitrogen so living org. can use it

population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere

population- 1 species in an area (squirrels)

community- all living org. in an area (plants, animals)

ecosystem- all living and nonliving things in an area (trees, rocks, climate)

biome- all similar ecosystems on Earth (rain forest, tundra)

biosphere- part of Earth where life is found

mutualism, commensalism, parasitism

mutualism- both org. benefit each other

commensalism- 1 benefits, 1 is unaffected

parasitism- 1 benefits, 1 is harmed

autotrophs, heterotrophs, decomposers

autotrophs- org. makes own food; photosynthesis or chemosynthesis

heterotrophs- consume or absorb food

decomposers- bacteria and fungi break down org. to release nutrients