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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Charles Darwin
- Naturalist; traveled on the HMS Beagle
- Theories: Natural selection ("survival of the fittest")
- Said that change takes a long time and all organisms come from a common ancestor
Lamarck and his theories of evolution
- Naturalist who said:

Correct: 1) organisms change over time 2) traits change through use and disuse

Incorrect: 1) organisms have a desire to change towards perfection 2) acquired traits can be inherited
preserved remains of ancient organisms
Artificial Selection
Humans decide which traits they want to pass down in organisms
Natural Selection
Nature and the environment shape the traits that are passed on in organisms; "survival of the fittest"
Vestigial Organs
Organ/features that no longer have a purpose, but are still present

Examples: Human appendix, whale femur, wisdom teeth
Analogous Structures
Structures that serve the same function, but develop differently; very remote/distant common ancestor

Ex: Bird wing and insect wing
Homologous Structures
Organs/features of organisms that are structured in the same way, but may have different purposes

Ex: Human arm, whale flipper, horse leg
An organism's ability to survive in its environment; its ability to survive in its environment
Natural variation
Genetic differences among individuals of a species
Common ancestry
All species, living and extinct, were derived from a common ancestor / the same original cells
Evidence for common ancestry
Homologous structures and fossils
Peppered Moths
Before the IR, peppered moths in England were white and fewer were dark; the light-colored lichen on the trees provided camouflage for the white moths so they wouldn't get eaten as much (the white ones were more fit pre-IR); after the IR, the light lichen died due to pollution; this caused the dark moths to be able to blend in with the trees better so their fitness increased and they were eaten less, while the light moths experienced decreased fitness
Coevolution Lab
Predators that were better at picking up beans had a higher fitness
- What do you have to know about this?
Cell Membrane
- Thin, flexible barrier around cell
- Made of lipids
- Selectively permeable (controls what enters and leaves the cell)

- Found in all cells
- Control center of the cell; contains DNA

- Found in eukaryotes
Golgi Apparatus
- Packages and ships proteins throughout the cell

- Found in eukaryotes
- Converts chemical energy into useable energy (ATP)
- "Power house" of the cell

- Found in eukaryotes
What is the useable energy called the mitochondria convert chemical energy into?
- Traps light energy and converts it to chemical energy (glucose)

- Found in plant cells
- Small, membrane-bound saclike structure used for storage
- Used for longer-term storage

- Found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes
Contractile vacuole
- Pumps out excess water

- Found in unicellular organisms
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
- Has no ribosoms on the surface
- Synthesizes materials for the cell

- Found in eukaryotes
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
- Has ribosomes embedded int eh surface
- Modifies proteins

- Found in eukaryotes
Cell wall
- Helps to protect & support the cell
- Found outside of the cell membrane

- Found in plants and some bacteria
- Framework of the cell; provides structures
- Made of microtubules (hollow tubes made of protein)

- Found in eukaryotes
Short, threadlike structures that help move particles across the surface of the cell

- Found in some eukaryotes and some prokaryotes
- Longer whip-ike structure that help cells move

- Found in some eukaryotes and some prokaryotes
- Material inside cell membrane

- Found in all cells
- Makes proteins; proteins carry out all of the work the DNA directs

- Found in eukaryotes and some prokaryotes
- Small membrane-bound structure that holds enzymes
- Digests material in the cell

- Found in eukaryotes (except plants)
- No nucleus
- Unicellular
- Ex: Bacteria
- 10+ million species
- Nucleus
- Uni- or multi-cellular
- Ex: Amoeba, human plants
- 8.7 million species
Cell Theory
1. All cells arise from pre-existing cells
2. All living things are COMPOSED OF cells
3. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function
Mass of solute / volume of solvent
Concentration gradient
- Solution concentrations that are different from one another (ex. high concentration in one area and low in another)
- Naturally, want to go from high to low concentration
The movement of particles from an area of high concentration of that particle to an area of low concentration of that particle
When solutions have equal concentrations (for example, inside and outside of a cell)
Selectively Permeable
Certain materials can pass through and certain cannot
The diffusion of water
Hypertonic solution
Concentration (of particles) inside cell is lower than concentration in solution, so water leaves the cell and cell shrinks
Hypotonic solution
Concentration (of particles) inside cell is high than concentration in solution, so water enters the cell and cell expands
What will a unicellular organism do when placed in a hypotonic solution?
It will stay the same, because contractile vacuoles will pump out water
Isotonic solution
Concentration (of particles) inside cell is the same as than concentration in solution, so cell remains at equilibrium
Passive transport
Movement of particles that does not require energy; moves along concentration gradient (from high to low)
Active transport
- Movement of particles that requires energy
- May be used if object cannot get through cell membrane or to maintain concentration gradient / move against the concentration gradient
A type of active transport in which material is taken into a cell by creating a vacuole
A type of active transport in which material is expelled from a cell by creating a vacuole
Facilitated diffusion
A type of passive transport in which particles move through protein channels in the membrane
What is dissolved in the solution (typically a solid)
What does the dissolving in a solution (typically a liquid)