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132 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Catastrophism was Cuvier's attempt to explain the existence of:
Different species in the fossil record.
During drought years on the Galapagos, small, easily eaten seeds become rare, leaving mostly large, hard-cased seeds that only birds with large beaks can eat. if a drought persists for several years, what should one expect to result from natural selection?
More small-beaked birds dying than larger-beaked birds. The offspring produced in subsequent generations have a higher percentage of birds with large beaks.
Which of Darwin's ideas had the strongest connection to Darwin having read Malthus's essay on human population growth?
Struggle for existence.
Ichthyosaurs were aquatic dinosaurs. Fossils show us that they had dorsal fins and tails, as do fish, even though their closest relatives were terrestrial reptiles that had neither dorsal fins nor aquatic tails. The dorsal fins and tails of ichthyosaurs and fish are best described as:
Examples of convergent evolution.
Which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on Earth?
All organisms use essentially the same genetic code.
Which scientist's ideas about natural selection best agree with Darwin?
Natural selection is most nearly the same as?
Differential reproductive success.
The most likely explanation for the high rate of sympatric speciation that apparently existed among the cichlids of Lake Victoria in the past is?
Sexual selection.
In Darwin's thinking, the more closely related two different organisms are, the:
More recently they shared a common ancestor.
Which of these is the smallest unit upon which natural selection directly acts?
An individual's phenotype.
In a Hardy-Weinberg population with two alleles, A and a, that are in equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.2. What is the frequency of individuals with Aa genotype?
Which of the following factors would not contribute to allopatric speciation?
Gene flow between the two populations is extensive.
Male satin bowerbirds adorn structures that they build, called "bowers," with parrot feathers, flowers, and other bizarre ornaments in order to attract females. Females inspect the bowers and, if suitably impressed, allow males to mate with them. The evolution of this male behavior is due to:
Sexual selection.
The Darwinian fitness of an individual is measured most directly by:
The number of its offspring that survive to reproduce.
Most Swiss starlings produce four to five eggs in each clutch. Those producing fewer or more than this have reduced fitness. Which of the following terms best describes this?
Stabilizing selection.
You are studying three populations of birds. Population A has 10 birds, of which one is brown (a recessive trait) and nine are red. Population B has 100 birds, of which ten are brown. Population C has 30 birds, and three of them are brown. Which population is most likely to be subject to the bottleneck effect?
Population A.
Two species of frogs belonging to the same gneus occasionally mate, but the offspring fail to develop and hatch. What is the mechanism for keeping the two frog species separate?
The postzygotic barrier called reduced hybrid viability.
Bird guides once listed the myrtle warbler and Audubon's warbler as distinct species. Recently, these birds ahve been classified as eastern and western forms of a single species, the yellow-rumped warbler. Which of the following pieces of evidence, if true, would be cause for this reclassification?
The two forms interbreed often in nature, and their offspring have good survival and reproduction.
The correct way to write the name of a species using proper binomial nomenclature is:
Homo sapiens.
A biologist discovers two populations of wolf spiders whose members appear identical. Members of one population are found in the leaf litter deep within the woods. Members of the other populations are found in the grass at the edge of the woods. The biologist decides to designate the members of the two populations as two separate species. Which species concept is this biologist most closely using?
Some molecular data place the giant panda in the bear family (Ursidae) but place the lesser panda in the raccoon family (Procyonidae). Consequently, the morphological similarities of these two species are probably due to:
Possession of homoplasies.
If there is a low number of hybrid flies in a hybrid zone because hybrids are poorly adapted to conditions in the hybrid zone, and if fewer hybrid flies are produced with the passage of time, this will most likely lead to:
Generally, within a lineage, the largest number of synapomorphies should be found among two organisms that are members of the same:
Which kingdom has been replaced with two domains?
When using a cladistic approach to systematics, which of the following is considered most important for classification?
Shared derived characters.
A plant has the following characteristics: a taproot system, several growth rings evident in a cross section of the stem, and a layer of bark around the outside. Which of the following best describes the plant?
Woody eudicot.
As a youngster, you drive a nail in the trunk of a young tree that is 3 meters tall. The nail is about 1.5 meters from the ground. Fifteen years later, you return and discover the tree has grown to a height of 30 meters. The nail is now _________ meters above the ground.
Which of the following is derived from the ground tissue system?
Which of the following is the male gametophyte of a flowering plant?
Pollen grain.
Which of the following have unevenly thickened primary walls that support young, growing parts of the plant?
Collenchyma cells.
Plants contain meristems whose only function is to:
Divide into new cells.
Compared to a cell with many aquaporins in its membrane, a cell containing few aquaporins will:
Have a slower rate of osmosis.
Which of the following statements about xylem is incorrect?
It transports mainly sugars and amino acids.
Most plant species are in which group?
The value for ψ in root tissue was found to be -0.35 MPa. If you take the root tissue and place it in a 0.1 M solution of sucrose (ψ = -0.23), net water flow would:
Be from the sucrose solution into the tissue.
Arrange the following five events in an order that explains the mass flow of materials in the phloem.

1. Water diffuses into the sieve tubes.
2. Leaf cells produce sugar by photosynthesis.
3. Solutes are actively transported into sieve tubes.
4. Sugar is transported from cell to cell in the leaf.
5. Sugar moves down the stem.
2, 4, 3, 1, 5
Water potential is generally most negative in which of the following parts of a plant?
Mesophyll cells of the leaf.
Water rises in plants primarily by the cohesion-tension model. Which of the following is not true about this model?
The "tension" of this model represents the excitability of the xylem cells.
Which of the following is not true of micronutrients in plants?
They are the essential elements of small size and molecular weight.
Nitrogen fixation is primarily a bacteria-driven process that:
Converts nitrogen gas into ammonia.
A whitish plant growing on another plant produces haustoria. Which term best describes the whitish plant?
A parasite.
What is the main cause of guttation in plants?
Root pressure.
Most of the dry weight of a plant is the result of uptake of:
Carbon dioxide through stomata.
Which of the following elements is incorrectly paired with its function in a plant?
Sulfur: component of DNA.
In plants, which of the following are produced by meiosis?
Haploid spores.
Which of the following is true concerning flowering plants?
The flower includes sporophyte tissue.
Which of the following would be considered to be a multiple fruit?
What is typically the result of double fertilization in angiosperms?
Both a diploid embryo and triploid endosperm are formed.
Fruits develop from:
The structures formed below the cotyledons on a developing eudicot are the _________ and ________.
Hypocotyl; radicle.
What is the function of the integument of an ovule?
Form a seed coat.
Jell-O, gelatin, and candy corn are made up of a hydrolyzed type of loose connective tissue that is extremely abundant in animals. This type of connective tissue is also called:
Single columnar epithelium is composed of:
A layer of brick-like cells.
This type of muscle tissue associated with internal organs, other than the heart, is:
Smooth muscle.
An ectotherm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally-sized endotherm because:
The ectotherm invests little energy in temperature regulation.
Loss of heat in a cool stream is an example of:
Some nutrients are considered "essential" in the diets of certain animals because:
They cannot be manufactured by the organism.
Which of the following organs is incorrectly paired with its function?
Large intestine : bile production.
Which of the following statements describes pepsin?
It begins the hydrolysis of proteins.
Which of the following statements is true of mammals?
The epiglottis prevents food from entering the trachea.
Which structures are incorrectly paired with their organism?
Crop : Paramecium.
The symbiotic microbes that help nourish a ruminant live mainly in specialized regions of the:
Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have which of the following?
A closed circulatory system.
Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart?
Why is the velocity of blood flow the lowest in capillaries?
The total cross-sectional area of the capillaries is greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arteries or any other part of the circulatory system.
What is the number one cause of death of all adults in the United States?
Cardiovascular disease.
Which structures are incorrectly paired with their organism?
Alveoli : insect
Classification system --> structural homology
1. A, B, C = same class, different order
2. D, E, F = same order, different families
D and F show the greatest degree of structural homology.
The best classification system is that which most closely:
Reflects evolutionary history.
Morphological similarities of two species of pandas (giant/small) are probably due to:
Possession of analogous structures (homoplasies).
The term most associated with clade is:
What has: chlorophyll, flowers for reproductive parts, and a vascular system arranged in a ring?
A eudicot.
Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?
Root hairs.
A person can remove apical dominance by:
What is derived from the ground tissue system?
What is a water-conducting cell of xylem that has thick walls and is dead at functional maturity?
Tracheids and vessel elements.
Which cells are unspecialized and retain the ability to divide and perform most of the plants metabolic functions of synthesis and storage?
Parenchyma cells.
The best word to describe the growth of plants is:
The amount and direction of movement of water can be predicted by measuring:
Water potential (ψ).
Which two elements make up 90% dry weight in plants?
Oxygen and Carbon.
Which soil mineral is most liekly leached away during a hard rain?
NO3- (repelled by negatively charged soil particles).
Which is not true about micronutrients in plants?
They are the essential elements of small size and molecular weight.
Why is nitrogen fixation such an important process?
Nitrogen is most often the limiting factor in plant growth.
Which of the following is a primary difference between ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae?
Ectomycorrhizae do not penetrate root cells, whereas endomycorrhizae grow into invaginations of the root cell membranes.
Dwarf mistletoe growing on a pine tree is best classified as:
A parasite.
Stratified cuboidal are composed of:
Several layers of box-like cells.
Connective tissues have:
Relatively few cells with a large amount of extracellular matrix (blood).
All skeletal muscles are both:
Striated and voluntary.
Positive feedback differs from negative feedback in that:
The response in positive feedback is in the same direction as the initiating response.
Panting in overheated birds/mammals dissipates excess heat by:
Compared with a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has:
Less surface area per unit of volume.
Which describes peristalsis in the digestive system?
Smooth muscles contract and move food through the alimentary canal.
Self-digestion of the stomach due to pH is prevented by:
Mucus secretion.
Which has the longest secum?
An herbivore.
Which animal has a pulmocutaneous circuit?
The sequence of blood flow observed in reptiles and mammals is:
Vena cava --> right atrium --> right ventricle --> pulmonary circuit.
What are the semilunar valves in the mammalian heart?
Places where blood leaves via the aorta and pulmonary vein/artery.
Countercurrent exchanged can be compared with:
Compared to seawater around them, most marine invertebrates are:
One primary way that freshwater bony fishes deal with their osmotic environment is by:
Excreting large amounts of dilute urine.
Which nitrogenous waste requires hardly any H2O for its excretion?
Uric acid.
Materials are returned to blood from the filtrate by which process?
Selective reabsorption.
Which group possesses excretory organs known as Malpighian tubes?
Which is extremely important for H2O conservation in mammals?
Juxtamedullary nephrons.
What is unique about transport epithelial cells in the ascending loop of Henle in humans?
Their membranes are impermeable to water.
The most common kind of dispersion in nature is:
Which characterizes a relatively k-selected population?
Offspring with good chances of survival.
Which describes having one reproductive episode during a lifetime?
In the logistic equation, r = ?
Birth and/or death rates.
Exponential growth of a population is represented by dN/dt = ?
In models of logistic population growth:
The population growth rate slows dramatically as N approahes K.
Artificial Selection:
The selection and breeding of individuals, by humans, to get specific traits and characteristics that would make the individual more "useful;" ex: donkey + horse = mule
Change that results in the formation of new species, new taxonomic groups, evolutionary trends, adaptive radiation, and mass extinction
The generation-to-generation change in the frequency of alleles in a population
Prezygotic Barrier - Habitat Isolation:
The organisms all live in some general area, but in different "sub-areas;" habitat difference keeps them apart
Prezygotic Barrier - Mechanical Isolation:
The two individuals cannot reproduce together because their reproductive organs don't "fit" together; ex: bluet
Paraphyletic Group:
Common ancestors, but not all are descendents.
Secondary Growth:
The thickening of roots and shoots; is caused by the lateral meristem; ex: bark in woody plants
Occurs in walled cells; the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall; occurs when the cell loses water to a hyptertonic environment.
Mutualistic association of plants and fungi; fungi causes an invagination in the root, or it grows inside the root
Alternation of Generations:
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae.
Adventitious Root:
Roots that grow vertically off a lateral root; increase the uptake of water and nutrients
A modified shoot with enlarged leaves; ex: onion
A modified leaf, or vine, that supports the growth of other plants; ex: grape vines and pea plants
Symplastic Route:
Through the center of the cell; through cytosol and plasmodesmata
Apoplastic Route:
Through extracellular membranes
A mass off undividing cells at the end of a plant cutting; associated with cell cloning - cloned cells could "take over" or form a mass --> callus
Negative Feedback System:
The result is in the opposite direction of the stimulus; is not short-lived; ex: thermostat --> if a room is cool, turn the temperature up to make it warm
Organic molecules essential to organisms that have to be obtained from outside sources like food or sun
Fragments of blood cells located in the plasma that assist in blood clotting
Basal Metabolic Rate:
The rate at which the body uses energy while at rest to keep vital functions going
1. Facilitate O2 intake and release of CO2; supply O2 to blood
2. Trachea, Bronchus
3. O2 is taken in through the trachea; there is a bronchus which branches into bronchioles; the bronchioles interact with the alveoli which are air sacs