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45 Cards in this Set

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What does the urinary system consist of? (In order)

2 kidneys


2 ureters


1 urinary bladder


1 uretha

What are the primary functions of the kidneys?

1. Excretion
2. Acid-Base (pH) balance
3. Osmoregulation

All involved in making urine.

What is excreted via the kidneys?

1. Urea, uric acid, creatinine, bile pigments


2. Excess water, ions, toxins


3. Drugs like penicillin

How do the kidneys regulate acid-base / pH balance?

They excrete hydrogen ions (which increase acidity) and reabsorb bicarbonate ions (which increase alkaline)

What is osmoregulation?

The maintenance of water content, blood volume and electrolytes

What are the secondary functions of the kidneys?

1. Production of Renin (which helps regulation BP & kidney function)


2. Production of erythropoietin


3. Conversion of Vit D to active Calcitriol (increases calcium levels)


4. Gluconeogenesis (makes glucose from carbs)


5. Detoxification

What is renin and what does it do?

An enzyme


Regulates BP & kidney function

What does erythropoietin do?

Stimulates RBC production/haematopoeisis

What is calcitriol and how is it made?

A hormone that increases calcium levels.




Vitamin D is converted into calcitriol in the kidneys.

What is gluconeogenesis?

New glucose being made from substrates.

Where are the kidneys located?

Bean shaped organs.


Located in the higher abdominal region, on the post abdominal wall, under the floating ribs.


Retroperitoneal.



Which kidney is slightly lower than the other? Why?

The right is slightly lower than the left.


Because the liver pushes the right kidney down.

L

Describe the external anatomy of the kidney.

3 layers of connective tissue coverings.


1. Renal fascia. Innermost. Collagen fibres. Anchors kidney to supporting structures.


2. Adipose tissue. middle. Cushions kidney.


3. Renal capsule. Collagen fibres. Transparent. Prevents infections.

What are the three regions of the kidney internally?

1. Cortex. Outer zone.


2. Medulla. Inner zone. Pyramids make nodes.


3. Renal pelvis. Funnel-shaped. Minor and major calyx. Continuous with ureter.

What is the functional unit of the kidney? How many exist in each kidney?

Nephron.


More than 1 million per kidney.

What are the 2 kinds of nephrons? What % of each?

Cortical nephrons &


juxtamedullary nephrons


(cortical are more in the cortex, juxta more in the medulla)

C & J

What are the roles of nephrons?

- Filter blood to form urine


- Adjust levels of wastes and nutrients in blood and help maintain homeostasis by selective reabsorption & active secretion

List the path of blood supply to the kidneys.

Abdominal aorta > renal artery > artery branches > afferent arteriole > nephron > efferent arteriole > peritubular capillaries > venules > small veins > renal veins > inferior vena cava

A R A A N E P V S R I




All real Aces are nasty, especially proud, very stubborn, rarely interesting.

What are the kidneys controlled by?




What system regulates?

Autonomic control by the renal plexus (in the kidneys).




The Sympathetic NS.



NO parasympathetic influence at all.

How does the sympathetic NS innervate the kidneys?

Sympathetic fibres regulate blood flow in response to body's requirements.


Stimulates: Constricts.


No stimulate: relax.

Stimulation vs no stimulation

What are ureters?


Where are they located?


What is their role?

-Muscular tubes


-Retroperitoneal and attached to the abdominal wall


- Transport urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder by peristalsis

What are the three layers of the ureters?

• Inner mucosa– Transitional epithelium– Surrounds lamina propria


• Muscularis– Middle muscular layer– Longitudinal and circular smooth muscle


• Adventitia– Outer connective tissue

What is the shape of the urinary bladder?


What does it do?


Where is it located?


What muscular feature does it inc?

• Hollow, muscular organ


• Stores urine before voiding


• Located in the pelvic cavity posterior to thepubic symphysis, anterior to the vagina + rectum • Internal urethral sphincter (smooth muscle)

Describe the female Urethra.

- 4cm long


- merely a passage for urine


- Voluntary sphincter

Describe the male Urethra.

- 20cm long

- Three parts: prostatic urethra, membranous urethra & penile urethra

– Passage of semen and urine

- Voluntary sphincter

Describe the path of urine flow.

Urine drains out of kidney pyraminds > minor calyces > major calyces > pelvis > ureter > bladder > urethra > exit

P M M P U B U E




Personally my mum prepares unbelievably beautiful Ugandan eggs

How does the renal system work with the musculoskeletal system? (4)

- a sphincter controls urination by closing the urethral opening


- muscles of trunk protect renal organs


- floating ribs protect kidneys


- pelvis protects bladder

How does the renal system work with the integumentary system?

- sweat glands eliminate water & salts


- keritinised epidermis prevents fluid loss


- epidermis produces Vit D for renal production of calcitriol

Which other body systems does the renal system work with?

- Musculoskeletal


- Integumentary system


- Digestive system


- Respiratory system


- Cardiovascular


- Exocrine + Endocrine

M


I


D


R


C

How does the renal system work with the digestive system?

- DS absorbs water needed to excrete wastes in the kidney


- Absorbs ions needed to maintain normal body concentrations


- Kidneys excrete toxins & excess fluid absorbed by the DS

How does the renal system work with the respiratory system?

-RS assists kidneys in pH balance. Hypervent to eliminate c02. Kidneys = eliminate hydrogen ions & reabsorb bicarbonate ions to bind with H (& increase ph)

How does the renal system work with the cardiovascular system?

- CVS delivers blood to the nephrons for filtration


- accepts fluids and solutes reabsorbed during urine production

How does the renal system work with the exocrine system?

- produces renin, and enzyme which increases BP

What is Renin?


When is it released?


What does it convert?


What does it do?

- an enzyme produced by the kidney


- in response to decreased renal blood flow


- converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I


- increase blood pressure

How does the renal system work with the endocrine system?

- produces erythropoietin


- influenced by aldosterone


- influenced by ADH

What does erythropoietin do?


Where is it produced?


When is it secreted?

- promotes RBC production in the bone marrow


- the kidneys


- in response to decreased renal o2 levels

Where is aldosterone produced?


What does it do?



- The adrenal gland


- Adjusts rates of electrolyte (Na+ & K+) & fluid reabsorption by kidneys

Where is ADH synthesised?


Where is it secreted?


What does it do?

The Hypothalamus.


The posterior pituitary.


Makes kidneys retain water & decrease urination for elevation of BV & BP





What is the name of the big muscle in the bladder AKA the one that contracts when voiding?

The Detrousal muscle

What is the pathway of urine from kidney to the outside of the body?

Collecting duct > minor calyx > major calyx > renal pelvis > ureter > bladder > urethra

How are two ways kidney function is tested?

GFR is tested via a creatinine excretion measure




Blood-urea nitrate test (sees if urea is actually exiting or not)

What is the GFR?


What does it measure?

Glomerular filtration rate.


The amount of filtrate the kidneys produce in a minute into to Bowman's capsule. 90-120ml p/m.

What does renin do to angiotensinogen?

Renin turns angiotensinogen (made in liver) into angiotensin 1.


(this takes place in the lungs.)

What turns angiotensin into angiotensin II?

ACE aka Angiotensin-converting enzyme

What does Angiotensin II accomplish?

Vasoconstriction


&


Encourages the release of Aldosterone (which causes water to be reabsorbed along with sodium)


AKA it increases S.V & therefore BP