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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
study of harmful substances
something naturally occurring
(know one example of toxin and effect)
movement of toxic substances in the body

1) Absorption: inhalation, eating (G.I), dermal, eyes, nose, anus, tongue
2) Distribution: blood stream
3) Metabolized: break down—forming, alteration of compound, (liver) P450 enzymes
4) Excretion: feces, urine, sweat, vomit, exhalation, sneezing
effect of toxic substance
final product or intermediate product (related to metabolism) is more toxic than the parent compound
lipophilic (fat-loving, easily absorbed in the body)
hydrophilic (easily secreted by the body)
process of enabling a compound to be excreted from the body; P450-Phase I and II-enzymes highest concentration in liver (takes place in the liver, enzymes are responsible, two phases)
foreign compound to the body (all pharmaceuticals, etc., anything that isn't naturally occurring in the body)
study of death in population and causes (study of toxic exposure in a population)
Acute v. Chronic toxicity
acute-less than 24 hours
chronic-greater than 24 hours
Local v. Systemic
local-stays in the area you were exposed (area of exposure); not circulate the body
systemic-distributed throughout the body--multiple sites of damage
Immediate v. Delayed
immediate-within seconds to minutes, recovery is allowed
delayed-years down the road, cancer, serious illness, and death
Determination of doses to be tested
milligrams per kilogram, weight
Animal Models
In vivo- the whole body, so the whole animal, (pro-representative of what will happen in real life, see effects on the whole system; con- animal could die)

In vitro- testing it in isolated systems, “test tube”, outside the body (pro-can see what the effects are on the liver; con-will that be replicated in the whole animal? May not be the case)

In silico- testing the effects using a computer program (modeling the effects) (pro-no using animals and harming them in any way, fast, fairly cheap; con-may or may not be representative for what happens in real life)
Variables affecting toxicity
toxicant itself usually well defined and concentration of toxicant

time of day
nutrition diet
state of health
Risk Assessment
1970's FDA and EPA regulation, CDC

10 pounds per million or 100ppm,
Routes of exposure
three primary routes are respiratory, skin (dermal) and GI
Storage of toxicants in the body
bone, fat
Biotransformation/target organ toxicity
things that can affect metabolism
-circadian cycle

-pulmonotoxicity=respiratory track
Elimination of toxicants
hair, nails, saliva
Major classes/examples of toxicants
1) pesticides (DDT)
2) cyanide
3) benzene
More sensitive to toxic effects
Brain--> circulatory system, visceral muscle, bone, fat
toxins bottom of the food chain work their way up