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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Molecules of life

Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

Carb examples

Glucose, starch, glycogen, cellulose

Protein examples

Hemoglobin, chlorophyll

Lipid examples

Triglyceride, phospholipid, steroids

Nucleic acid examples


Polymer =

Large molecule made up of smaller molecules

Polymers of sugars =


Plant energy is stored in


Vertebrates store energy in


4 categories of lipids

Fats, phospholipids, steroids, waxes

Lipids are hydro________ because they consist mostly of __________

Phobic, hydrocarbons

Fats are made of...

A glycerol and fatty acid chains

Saturated fats are

Solids, animal fats, can stack

Unsaturated fats are

Liquid, mostly plant and fish fats, can't stack

Fatty acid chains are hydro__________


Main function of fats is

Energy storage

Cells/tissue that mammals store fat in


Phospholipds have how many fatty acids attached?


Instead of a third fatty acid, phospholipids have a...

Phosphate group

Phospholipids are primary component of...

Cell membranes

Steroids are characterized by...

Carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings

How are different steroids created?

Attaching different groups to the carbon rings

Waxes are lipids with fatty acid chains joined to....


Proteins are made from

Amino acids

There are (#) standard amino acids


Chains of amino acids bonded together are...


Polypeptides form proteins by


Purpose of nucleic acids is to

Store and transmit hereditary information

Nucleic acids are made out of


Difference between DNA and RNA is...

The sugar. RNA = ribose, DNA = deoxyribose

Segments of DNA are called


Genes are code for

The amino acid sequence of polypeptides

Five nucleotides are

Adenine, thymine / uracil, guanine, cytosine

ALL cells have (these 3 things)

plasma membrane, cytoplasm, chromosomes w/ DNA

Prokaryotes are ________ and __________

Bacteria, Archaea

Eukaryotes are...

Everything else

Special to animal cells are.... (3 things)

Lysosomes, centrioles, flagellum

Special to plant cells are... (4 things)

Chloroplasts, central vacuole, cell wall, plasmodesmata


Threadlike DNA and proteins


Where parts of ribosomes are made

Nuclear pores

Allow material to enter/leave nucleous


Where genetic instructions are decoded and proteins are made (site of protein synthesis)

Endomembrane system (3 parts)

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes

Rough ER (RER)

Studded with ribosomes, site of most protein synthesis. Proteins are released to vesicles to be carried to Golgi.

Smooth ER (SER)

No ribosomes, site of lipid synthesis

Golgi Apparatus

The post office! Packages/labels/ships off proteins to within or out of the cell.


Membranous sac of enzymes-- digests everything


Sites of cell respiration; generate energy in form of ATP (requires oxygen)

Energy is released from ATP when...

The terminal phosphate bond is broken (ATP -> ADP)


Sites of photosynthesis-- converting solar energy to chemical energy in form of sugars


Network of fibers that extend throughout cytoplasm and organize structures/activities in cell

3 roles of cytoskeleton

1. Mechanical support/cell shape

2. Anchorage for organelles

3. Cell movement

3 components of cytoskeleton

1. Microtubules

2. Microfilaments

3. Intermediate filaments

Cells propel through fluid and move fluid over surfaces with...

Flagella and cilia

Flagella movement

Snakelike motion, drives cell in same direction as axis of flagellum

Cilia movement

Back and forth motion, moves cell in direction perpendicular to axis of cilium