Macromolecules Conclusion

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Identifying Unknown #1103

Purpose: There are four naturally occurring organic macromolecules essential to all living organisms. These organic macromolecules which are essential to all life are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.. These four organic macromolecules provide all cells with structure, create and store energy, and can be hormones, immune substances and genetic material. A macromolecule, or polymer, is a large complex molecule built from smaller molecules, or monomers, such as nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Monosaccharides and polysaccharides are both carbohydrates. Polysaccharides are a complex carbohydrate composed of a chain of monosaccharides that are linked together by glycosidic bonds.
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Carbohydrates are produced in green plants by photosynthesis and serve as a major energy source in animal diets. Carbohydrates are converted by cells in to ATP for energy. Proteins are molecules composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds. Proteins can act as structural materials, energy storage, regulate metabolic activity as enzymes, transport molecules, act as antibodies, or regulators of gene expression. Lipids are a fatty organic compound that is nonpolar. Due to the nonpolar nature of lipids, they are hydrophobic and therefore insoluble in water. Lipids provide cells with structure by forming the cellular membranes. They also serve as long-term energy storage for cells. In order to identify the properties of Unknown #1103, four tests will be performed. Benedict’s test, an iodine test, a biuret test, and a test of Sudan III will all help determine that which is Unknown #1103. Benedict’s test is performed to determine whether Unknown #1103 has reducing sugars by testing for a reaction with Benedict’s reagent. The test is positive if the mixture turns yellow or red, but it is negative if it turns blue or green. The Iodine test is performed in order to determine the presence of starch in Unknown #1103 by testing its …show more content…
The first test performed, Benedict’s Test, was done in order to determine if Unknown #1103 was a reducing sugar. When Unknown #1103 was tested with Benedict’s reagent it turned blue-green, indicating that it was not a reducing sugar. The next test performed, the iodine test, would determine whether Unknown #1103 contained starch. Upon mixing the iodine solution with Unknown #1103, it turned orange, meaning there were no starches in the Unknown #1103. The Biuret test was performed next in order to determine whether Unknown #1103 contained any proteins. Unknown #1103, when mixed with the Biuret reagent, turned blue-green, showing it to be negative for proteins. The final test was performed with Sudan III in order to determine whether the Unknown #1103 contained lipids or not. When the Sudan III was mixed with the Unknown #1103, the resulting mixture was a bright opaque red. The reaction was positive. This reaction is the result of the Sudan III, a fat soluble dye, staining the lipids in the unknown solution. The definite negative and positive results of Unknown #1103 and the test reagents indicates that there was no contamination or any possible sources of error due to the proper performance of the tests and procedures surrounding the tests. The results of the test conclude the Unknown #1103 to be a lipid based biological

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