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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

List the parts of the stamen and their functions

Anther: produce pollen
Filament: support anther
Describe the process of fertilization
One sperm combines with the egg to make a zygote. Another combines with two other cells to make a triploid cell the zygote feeds on
Distinguish between pollination and fertilization
Pollination is the transfer of pollen while fertilization is the unity of a sperm and egg
Why did Mendal work with pea plants?
7 easily visible traits, breeds quickly, and produces many offspring
What is the function of the stigma
To trap pollen
Describe mendals experiment

Bred plants forming the F1 generation of heterozygous tall hybrids. They then bred to form F2 which were 3/4 tall and 1/4 short

Distinguish between a gene and an allele

A gene is the genetic makeup that causes a trait (e.g. color) An allele is what form the gene takes (e.g. red)

Distinguish between true-breeding and hybrid

True-breeding has no change in the genotype of the offspring and the parents; while hybrid does

Describe Mendal's Principle of Dominance

Certain alleles within a gene mask over the other, only displaying one allele, and is considered "dominant"

The other allele, that is masked, is called "recessive"

Describe Mendal's Principle of Segregation

Each plant has 2 alleles for each gene. Meiosis splits them apart; leaving each gamete with onlt one allele.

Distinguish between genotypes and phenotypes; give examples

Genotypes are the genetic makeup of a gene in a particular organism. Example: AA or Aa or aa

Phenotypes are the observable form of the gene. Example: Tall, Short, red, etc.

How are punnet squares used in genetics?

To predict the probability of certain genotypes and phenotypes from the given genotypes of two parents

What is a monohybrid cross?

The cross between ONE gene from each parent. Example: Aa x AA

What is the difference between homozygous and heterozygous

Homozygous has one type of allele for that particular gene. E.g. AA or aa

Heterozygous has different alleles for the gene. E.g. Aa

What is the genotype for an individual that shows a recessive trait

homozygous; both lower-case letters; e.g. aa

What is a dihybrid cross

the cross between TWO genes from each parent. I.e. AABB x aabb (4x4 punnet square instead of 2x2)

Explain Mendal's Principle of Independent sorting

during Meiosis the chromosomes and tetrads randomly line up along the equator, causing the alleles to be seperated randomly and independently of eachother

Describe Mendal's experiment that supports independent sorting.

He took a true-bred round smooth pea plant, and a true-bred wrinkled green pea plant, and bred them together. He took their offspring (F1) and allowed them to breed. Their offspring (F2) had some wrinkled yellow and smooth green. That shows that the genes are inherited independentlyq

What structure forms the fruit?

the ovary

What are the parts of the pistil

stigma, style, ovary

Distinguish between: incomplete dominance, complete dominance, and codominance

Incomplete: both alleles are shown, only one is slightly more visible than the other

Complete: only one allele is shown. The other is completely masked

Codominance: Both alleles are shown in full. Could be spotted, splotched, or half and half

Give an example of multiple alleles

Blood type: I^A, I^B, i

What are traits controlled by more than one gene?

polygenic traits

Give 2 specific examples of how the environment influences the expression of genes

Diet: not enough nourishment will stunt height growth, while too much will cause the person to get fat, and they might not grow as much

Sunlight exposure: The color of human skin darkens and tans after exposure to too much sunlight. It also gets pale after having little sunlight for extended periods of time

Explain why the checkered chicken is an example of codominance instead of incomplete dominance

In incomplete dominance, the traits are expressed equally over the entire body, with one being more pronounced. Codominance shows both alleles all over the body, instead of a solid color.