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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Particles tend to move away from areas where they are most highly concentrated and to become evenly distributed. This is typically accomplished by what form of transport?
IMG src="http://qm.riosalado.edu//Resources/bio/bio160/2008_05_19/Lesson_Quiz/Quiz_2/bio160_q2_image01.jpg">
Adipose Tissue
IMG src="http://qm.riosalado.edu//Resources/bio/bio160/2008_05_19/Lesson_Quiz/Quiz_2/bio160_q3_image02.jpg">
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
IMG src="http://qm.riosalado.edu//Resources/bio/bio160/2008_05_19/Lesson_Quiz/Quiz_2/bio160_q4_image03.jpg">
Simple cuboidal epithelium
IMG src="http://qm.riosalado.edu//Resources/bio/bio160/2008_05_19/Lesson_Quiz/Quiz_2/bio160_q5_image04.jpg">
Simple columnar epithelium
IMG src="http://qm.riosalado.edu//Resources/bio/bio160/2008_05_19/Lesson_Quiz/Quiz_2/bio160_q6_image05.jpg">
Simple squamous epithelium
IMG src="http://qm.riosalado.edu//Resources/bio/bio160/2008_05_19/Lesson_Quiz/Quiz_2/bio160_q7_image06.jpg">
Stratified squamous epithelium tissue
IMG src="http://qm.riosalado.edu//Resources/bio/bio160/2008_05_19/Lesson_Quiz/Quiz_2/bio160_q8_image07.jpg">
Nervous Tissue
IMG src="http://qm.riosalado.edu//Resources/bio/bio160/2008_05_19/Lesson_Quiz/Quiz_2/bio160_q9_image08.jpg">
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
IMG src="http://qm.riosalado.edu//Resources/bio/bio160/2008_05_19/Lesson_Quiz/Quiz_2/bio160_q10_image09.jpg">
Smooth Muscle Tissue
What type of epithelial tissue lines the interior of blood vessels?
Simple Squamous
The epithelial tissue found in areas subject to considerable stretching, such as the urinary bladder, is:
The tissue that is usually well vascularized and has an extensive extracellular matrix is called:
Connective Tissue
Goblet cells are found in
Simple columnar epithelium tissue
What is the main reason that bedsores occur?
A homeostatic imbalance in the skin: Cell death in the skin due to patient not being moved regularly, which restricts the blood supply, and can cause skin ulcers
Why do fingertips have the smallest error of localization in the "testing tactile localization" activity in the lab?
Highest density of touch receptors per area
Which is not a true statement about the papillary layer of the dermis?
It is the deepest layer of the skin.
The blood vessels that supply skin cells are found in the
When the body temperature rises, which of the following takes place?
eccrine glands become active
Epidermal cells are supplied with nutrients from blood vessels located in the
Which of the following is not an epidermal derivative?
Sensory receptors
As cells are pushed from the deeper portion of the epidermis toward the surface
They tend to die
Which of the following is/are found in the dermis?
Pain and touch receptors
Sweat glands in the axillary and genital areas are:
Sudoriferous glands
The most external skin region is composed of:
Stratified squamous epithelium
Which of the following has no blood supply of its own:
The epidermis only
The hypodermis consists of:
Adipose tissue
Which of the following homeostatic imbalances is caused by skin exposure to chemicals:
Contact dermatitis
Define anatomy and physiology and explain how they are related.
Anatomy is The art of dissecting, or artificially separating the different parts of any organized body
Physiology is the science of the functioning of living systems.
As function follows form, so does form follow function. Anatomy has to do with the names and relationships of the structures of the body and physiology is how those structures work.
Relate the levels of structural complexity to the human body.
Atoms: building blocks of matter
Molecules: water, sugar, proteins -- groups of atoms
Organelles: basic components of microscopic cells
Cells: living structural and functional units of an organism
Tissues: groups of similar cells having common structure and function. Four basic types.
Organ: complex physiological processes become possible. Discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types; four tissue types more common.
Organ System: organs that cooperate and work closely together to accomplish a common purpose.
Organism: sum total of all levels of complexity working continuously and in unison.

Chemical level, molecular level, tissue level, organ, organ system, organism level.
Identify the major organ systems and list the organs associated with each.
1) The circulatory system transports nutrients and gases to cells and tissues throughout the body. It can be broken down into the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system. The cardiovascular system contains the heart, blood, and blood vessels. The lymphatic system includes lymph nodes and vessels, thymus, and the spleen.

2) The digestive system breaks down food polymers into smaller molecules to provide energy for the body. Its organs include the Mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, esophagus, stomach, pyloric sphincter, bile duct, duodenum, small intestine, large intestine, appendix, large intestine, rectum, anal sphincter, anus.
In order from beginning to end.

3) The endocrine system helps to maintain growth, body energy levels, reproduction, responses to surroundings, stress and injuries, and homeostasis within the body. Its organs include the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, pancreas, thymus gland, ovaries, testes, thyroid and parathyroid gland.

4) The Integumentary system protects the internal structures of the body from harm, prevents dehydration, stores fat, and produces vitamins and hormones. Its organs include the hair, nails, sweat glands, and skin.

5) The muscular system enables movement of the body. The three muscle types are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal.

6) The nervous system monitors and coordinates internal organ function and responds to changes in the external environment. Its organs include the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. It is divided into two main systems: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The spinal cord and brain make up the CNS and the PNS is the nerves. It also includes the endocrine system, which deals with our brain and keeps our bodies in order (e.g. hunger, body temp, rate which we grow, etc.)

7) The reproductive systems enable reproduction and the female reproductive system includes the ovaries, uterus, vagina, and mammary glands. The male reproductive system includes the testes, scrotum, penis, and prostate.

8) The respiratory system provides the body with oxygen via gas exchanges between outside air and gas in the blood. It includes the lungs, trachea, bronchi, and nose.

9) The skeletal system supports and protects the body and includes the bones, joints, ligaments, and cartilage.

10) The urinary system removes wastes and maintains water balance in the body and includes the kidneys, bladder, urethra, and ureters.
Define homeostasis and explain negative and positive feedback mechanisms in relation to homeostasis.
"Homeostasis" - ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions despite a changing external environment. Dynamic state of equilibrium, or balance. The body is said to be in homeostasis when its cellular needs are adequately met and functional activities are occurring smoothly. Virtually every organ system plays a role in maintaining the internal environment.

Most homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback mechanisms. In such systems, the net effect of the response to the stimulus is to shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity. E.g. the home heating system connected to a thermostat.

Positive feedback mechanisms are rare in the body and they typically control infrequent events that occur explosively and do not require continuous adjustments. E.g. blood clotting and the birth of a baby.
Identify and use anatomical terms that describe relative positions, body sections, and body regions; locate body landmarks; and demonstrate the anatomical position.
Anterior body landmarks:
Abdominal: anterior body trunk inferior to ribs.
Acromial: point of shoulder
Atecubital: anterior surface of elbow.
Axillary: Armpit.
Brachial: arm
Buccal: cheek area
Carpal: wrist
Cervical: neck region
Coxal: hip
Crural: leg
Digital: fingers, toes
Femoral: thigh
Fibular: lateral part of leg
Inguinal: area where thigh meets body trunk; groin
Nasal: nose area
Oral: mouth
Orbital: eye area
Patellar: anterior knee
Pelvic: area overlying the pelvis anteriorly
Pubic: Genital region
Sternal: breastbone area
Tarsal: ankle region
Thoracic: chest
Umbillical: naval

Posterior body landmarks:
Calcaneal: heel of foot
Cephalic: head
Deltoid: Curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle
Femoral: thigh
Lumbar: area of back between ribs and hips
Occipital: posterior surface of head
Olecranal: Posterior surface of elbow
Popliteal: posterior knee area
Sacral: area between hips
Scapular: shoulder blade region
Sural: posterior surface of lower leg; calf
Vertebral: area of spine

Directional terms:
Superior (cranial or cephalad): Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above.
Inferior (caudal): Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
Anterior (ventral): Toward or at the front of the body: in front of
Posterior (dorsal): Toward or at the backside of the body; behind
Medial: Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
Lateral: Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
Intermediate: Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Proximal: Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Distal: Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limn to the body trunk
Superficial (external): Toward or at the body surface
Deep (internal): Away from the body surface; more internal.

Body Planes and sections:
Sagittal section: a cut made along the lengthwise or longitudinal plane of the body; diving the body into left and right parts. It is also called midsagittal or median section.
Frontal section: cut made along the lengthwise plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior planes. It is also called coronal section.
Transverse section; cut made along horizontal plane dividing the body into superior and inferior parts. It is also called a cross section.

Body cavities:
Dorsal cavity includes the cranial cavity which is the pace inside the bony skull, and the spinal cavity, which extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column.
Ventral body cavity: the visceral organs within the chest and abdomen. The thoracic cavity is separated from the rest by the diaphragm. A central region is the mediastinum and it separates the lungs and houses the heart, teachea and other visceral organs. The abdominopelvic cavity has both the abdominal cavity, containing the stomach, liver and intestines, and the pelvic cavity, containing the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum.

There are four quadrants: the right upper, left upper, right lower, and left lower (they are backwards; right upper is on your left when you look at it). There are nine regions delineated by four planes. The superior horizontal plane is at the inferior aspect of the ribs. From left to right is goes right lumbar region, umbillical region, left lumbar region. The inferior horizonal plane is at the superior aspect of the hip bones. From left to right: right iliac region, hypogastric region, left iliac region. The vertical planes are just medial to the nipples and from left to right: right hypochondria region, epigastric region, left hypochondriac region
Define cell. Describe the structures in the cell and the function of each structure.
Cell is a small compartments and it reminded Robert Hooke of small cubelike structures of monk’s rooms.
The structures of the cell include the nucleus, which is the nuclear blueprint of the cell, The cytoplasm which has the mitochondria. The mitochondria make ATP and are known as the powerhouses of the cell. The ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis. The rough ER has ribosomes which synthesize proteins. The smooth ER functions in lipid metabolism and detoxification of drugs and pesticides. The golgi apparatus modifies and packages proteins. Lysosomes are membranous bags containing powerful digestive enzymes. Peroxisomes are membranous sacs cotaining powerful oxidase enzymes that use molecular oxygen to detoxify a number of harmful or poisonous substances. Cytoskeleton acts as cells bones and muscles.Centrioles direct formation of mitotic spindle.
Explain cell physiology, including the transport of materials in to and out of the cell.
Cell physiology: study of the structure and function of cells.All cells metabolize , digest foods, dispose of wastes, reproduce, grow, move and respond to a stimulus.

Membrane transplant: Membranes diffuse down their concentration gradient from an area that is more concentrated to one that is less concentrated.

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane such as the plasma membrane is osmosis.

Facilitated diffusion: provides passage for certain neede substances (e.g. glucose) that are both lipid-insoluble and too large to pass through the membrane pores.

Filtration is the process which warer and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid, or hydrostatic, pressure.

Bulk transport: exocytosis and endocytosis.
Name the four major types of tissues in the human body and the subcategories of each. In addition, name their basic structure and function and where each is located in the human body.
The four types of tissue are epithelium (covering), connective (support), muscle (movement), and nervous (control).

Epithelial tissues: lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body. Simple squamous epithelium: single layer of squamous cells resting on a basement membrane. Usually forms membranes where filtration or exchanges of substances by rapid diffusion occurs. It is found in the air sacs of lungs and the walls of capillaries. It also forms serous membranes: slick membranes that line ventral body cavity and cover the organs in that cavity.

Simple cuboidal epithelium rest on a basement membrante and are common in glands and their ducts (e.g. salivary glands and pancreas). Also forms the walls of the kidney tubes and covers the surface of the ovaries.

Simple columnar epithelium: single layer of tall cells fit closely together. Goblet cells, which produce lubricating mucus and they line the digestive tract from stomach to anus. Line body cavities open to the body exterior are called mucosae or mucous membranes.

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium: rest on a basement membrane. Some of its cells are shorter than others and its nuclei appear at different heights above the basement membrane so it gives a false impression that it is stratified. It mainly functions in absorption and secretion amd lines most of the respiratory tract. The mucus produced by the goblet cells in this epithelium traps dust and other debris, and the cilia propel the mucus upward and away from the lungs.

Stratified squamous epithelium: is the most common stratified epithelium in the body. The cells at the free edge are squamous but those close to the basement membrane are cuboidal or columnar. Found in sites that receive a good deal of friction or abuse, such as the esophagus, mouth, and outer portion of the skin.

Stratified cuboidal and stratified columnar epithelium: typically have just two layers with at least the surface cells being cuboidal in shape. They are fairly rare and found in the ducts of large glands.

Transitional epithelium: forms the lining of the urinary bladder, uterus, and part of the urethra.

Glandular epithelium: endocrine (thyroid, pituitary and adrenal) and exocrine glands (sweat and oil glands, liver, and pancreas.

Connective tissue: most abundant and widely distributed of the tissue types. Most connective tissues are vascularized (good blood supply). Tendons and ligaments have poor blood supply, cartilages are avascular. They heal slowly. They also have an extracellular matrix.

Type of connective tissue: bone, cartilage, dense connective tissue, loose connective tissue, areolar, adipose tissue, reticular connective tissue,and blood.

Bone: osseous tissue, composed of bone cells sitting in cavities called lacunae and surrounded by layers of a very hard matrix that contains calcium salts and large numbers of collagen fibers.

Cartilage:less hard and more flexible than bone and found in only a few places. Most widespread is hyaline cartilage which has abundant collagen fibers hidden by a rubbery matrix with a glassy appearance. Fibrocartilage and elastic cartilage.

Dense connective tissue: collagen fibers as its main matrix element. Fibroblasts, tendons and ligaments.

Loose connective tissue:softer, more cells and fewer fibers than any other connective tissue type except blood.

Areolar tissue: soft, pliable, cob-web and cushions and protects its body organs.

Adipose tissue: fat

Reticular connective tissue: stroma; lymphoid organs.

Blood: vascular tissue.

Muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.

Skeletal muscle: voluntary, form the muscluar system.

Cardiac: in the heart; involuntary control.

Smooth muscle: visceral; no striations. single nucleus, spindle-shaped. found in walls of hollow organs such as stomach, bladder, uterus and blood vessels.

Nervous tissue: Neurons; irritability and conductivity.
Name the four types of membranes in the human body
Membranes are thin layers of epithelial tissue usually bound to an underlying layer of connective tissue. Membranes cover, protect, or separate other structures or tissues in the body. The four types of membranes are: 1) cutaneous membranes; 2) serous membranes; 3) mucous membranes; and 4) synovial membranes.

The cutaneous membrane is skin. Skin consists of a layer of stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis) firmly attached to a thick layer of dense connective tissue (dermis). It differs from other membranes because it is exposed to air and is dry.

The serous membranes (or serosae) consist of simple squamous epithelium (a mesothelium) supported by a layer of connective tissue (areolar). These moist membranes line the closed, internal divisions of the ventral body cavity. The three types of serous membranes are: 1) the pleura, lining the pleural cavities and covering the lungs; 2) the peritoneum, lining the peritoneal cavity and covering the abdominal organs; and 3) the pericardium, lining the pericardial cavity and covering the heart.

The mucous membranes (or mucosae) consist of epithelial tissue (usually stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelia) on a layer of loose connective tissue called the lamina propria (from the Latin, meaning "one's own layer"). The mucosae line the body cavities that open to the exterior, such as the digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts. These membranes are kept moist by bodily secretions.

Synovial membranes are composed of connective tissue. They surround the cavity of joints, filling the space with the synovial fluid that they make. The synovial fluid lubricates the ends of the bones allowing them to move freely.
Name the components of the integumentary system and explain how each contributes to homeostasis, including the basic structure and function of the skin.
hair and nails The integumentary system has a variety of functions; it may serve to waterproof, cushion, and protect the deeper tissues, excrete wastes, and regulate temperature, and is the attachment site for sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure, and temperature. In humans the integumentary system also provides vitamin D synthesis.
The integumentary system is the largest organ system. In humans, this system accounts for about 16 percent of total body weight and covers 1.5-2m2 of surface area.[4] It distinguishes, separates, protects and informs the animal with regard t
Examine the layers of the epidermis and give characteristics of each layer.
Outer epidermis- stratified squamous epithelium and keratinizes (hardens). Underlying dermis is made of dense connective tissue. Subcutaneous tissue or hypodermis anchors the skin to underlying organs.

The epidermis is avascular and has five zones; from outer to inner: corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, basale, and then the Dermis.
Identify and explain homeostatic imbalances of the skin.
Excessive sun exposure eventually damages the skin. IT causes the elastic fibers to clump, leading to leathery skin. IT also depresses the immune system.

Any restriction of the normal blood supply to the skin results in cell death, and if severe or prolonged enough, skin ulcers. Decubitus ulcers (bedsores) occur in bedridden patients who are not turned regularly or are dragged or pulled across the bed repeatedly.

When hemoglobin is poorly oxygenated, both the blood and skin of caucasions appear blue, a condition called cyanosis; it is common during heart failure and severe breathing disorders.

If a sebacaceous gland’s duct becomes blocked by sebum, a whitehead appears on the skin surface.
If the accumulated material oxidizes and dries, it darkens, forming a blackhead.
Name the four main types of bone and describe the structure and functions of each.
(Spongy and compact bone)
1) Long bones are mostly compact bone and are all the limbs except wrist and ankle bones.
2) Short bones contain mostly spongy bone; wrist and ankle. Patella or kneecap are an example of special short bones known as sesamoid.
3) Flat bones are thin, flattened and curved with two thin layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone E.g. the skull, ribs and sternum (breastbone).
4) Irregular bones e.g. vertebrae, which make up the spinal column and the hip bones.
Explain bone formation, growth, remodeling, fractures, and repair.
Bone formation is called ossification and involves two major phases. First, the hyaline cartilage model is completely covered with bone matrix by osteoblasts. Then the enclosed hyaline cartilage model is digested away, opening up a medullary cavity within newly formed bone.

By birth or shortly after, most hyaline cartilage models have been converted to bone except the two regions of articular cartilage that cover the bone ends and the epiphyseal plates.

When blood calcium levels drop below homeostatis levels, the parathyroid glands are stimulated to release PTH which activates psteoclasts; giant bone-destroying cells in bones. When calcium is too high, calcium is deposited in bone matrix as hard calcium salts.

Bone remodeling is where osteoblasts lay down new matrix and become trapped within it and they become osteocytes.

To repair a bone fracture:
1) a hematoma is formed
2) the break is splinted by a fibrocartilage callus
3)the bony callus is formed
4)bone remodeling occurs
Examine homeostatic imbalances relative to bone formation, growth, and remodeling.
Rickets is a disease of children which the bones fail to calcify. As a result, the bones soften and a definite bowling of the weight-bearing bones occurs.
Name and identify the bones of the axial skeleton.
The axial skeleton forms the longitudinal axis of the body and is divided into the skull, vertebral column, and bony thorax.

The skull is made of cranium and facial bones. The cranium has 8 large, flat bones that are single except two paired bones. The frontal bone, parietal bones, temporal bones, occipital bone, and ethmoid bone. The facial bones are the maxillae, palatine bones, zygomatic bones, lacrimal bones, nasal bones, vomer bone, inferior nasal conchae, and mandible.

The vertebral column (spine) extends from the skull to the pelvis.

The bony thorax is the sternum and ribs.
Name and identify bones of the appendicular skeleton.
The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle.

The Pectoral girdle consists of two shoulder blades (scapulae) and two collar bones (clavicles). These bones articulate with one another, allowing some degree of movement.

Shoulder Blades (Scapulae)
The shoulder blade is a flat triangular bone which stretches from the shoulder to the vertebral column at the back. On the back side it has a bony ridge for the attachment of the muscles. The bony ridge forms a prominent projection, the acromion, above the shoulder joint. Beneath the collar bone and just on the inside of the shoulder joint, is another bony projection of the shoulder blade, the coracoid process, which also serves for the attachment of muscles. The upper outer corner of the shoulder blade ends in the glenoid cavity into which fits the head of the upper arm bone, forming a ball and socket joint.

Collar Bones (Clavicles)
Each collar bone is rod-shaped and roughly S-shaped. It lies horizontally and articulates with the upper end of the breastbone, right in the middle and front, just above the first rib. The lateral end articulates with the acromium. Collar bones serve as a support for the shoulder blades in front and keep the shoulder blades back so that the arms can hang freely at the sides of the body. They prevent the pectoral girdles from getting out of joint easily and ample movement of the shoulders.

The Pectoral Girdle.

The Upper Limbs.
The skeleton of the upper limbs or arm may be divided into five main regions: an upper arm bone, the forearm (radius and ulna), the wrist, the palm of the hand and the fingers.

The Upper Arm (Humerus)

The upper arm is a single long bone. The upper end consists of a hemi-spherical ball which fits into the socket of the shoulder blade to form the shoulder joint. The lower end of the humerus forms a shallow ball and socket joint with the radius and a hinge joint with the ulna in the elbow.

The Forearm (Radius and Ulna)

The two long bones of the forearm are known as the radius and the ulna. The ulna is the larger of the two bones and is situated on the inner side (i.e. the little finger side) of the forearm. The upper end of the ulna articulates with the lower end of the humerus forming a strong hinge joint in the elbow region. The lower end of the ulna is slender and plays a minor role in the formation of the wrist joint. The radius is situated on the thumb side of the forearm. Its upper end articulates with both the humerus and the ulna. The broad, lower end of the radius forms a major part of the wrist joint, where it articulates with the wrist bones (carpals). The radius also allows the forearm to be rotated. The radio-ulnar joints are pivot joints in which the moving bone is the radius. As the head of the radius pivots at these joints, the lower end of the radius moves round the lower head of the ulna.

The Wrist

The wrist consists of eight carpal bones. These are small, short bones that are arranged in two rows of four. They have articulating facets which allow them to slide over one another.

The Palm of the Hand

The palm is supported by five long metacarpals. The metacarpals articulate with carpals at one end and with the phalanges at the other end.

The Fingers

The fingers are made up of fourteen phalanges. There are three phalanges in each finger but only two in the thumb.

The Pelvic (Hip) Girdle.
The pelvic girdle consists of two large, sturdy hip bones. Each hip bone consists of three fused bones namely the ilium, ischium and the pubis. The ilium is the largest of the three and forms the upper part of the hip bones. The sacrum fits like a wedge posteriorly between the two hip bones. The sacrum has a large, flat articular surface on each side for articulation with the ilia. The ischium forms the inferior part of the hip bone and the pubis the central in front. The two pubic bones are attached in the middle, on the front side by a symphysis which consists of fibrocartilage and ligaments, the pubic symphysis. The two hip bones and the sacrum form a complete bony ring, the pelvis . On the outer side of the point where the fused bones meet, there is a deep hip socket into which the head of the femur fits.

The pelvic girdle forms a strong support for the attachment of the limbs. Strong muscles of the back, the legs and the buttocks are attached to it. It protects some of the internal organs. In females it forms a strong basin-like structure for supporting and protecting the developing foetus during child-bearing.

The Pelvic Girdle.

The Lower Limbs or Legs.
The skeleton of the lower limb may be divided into five main regions: the upper leg (thigh), the lower leg, the ankle, the arch of the foot and the toes.

The Upper Leg or Thigh

The upper leg has a single long bone, the femur and is the longest bone in the body. The head of the femur is turned slightly inwards and has a large, rounded portion which articulates in the acetubulum, forming a ball-and-socket joint. At its distal end, the femur widens to form two large knobs (condyles) which form the hinged knee joint with the main long bone (tibia) of the lower leg. On the anterior side of these two condyles, there is an articular surface against which the kneecap (patella) slides. The patella is a small, triangular, flat bone which develops on the tendon of the thigh muscle and is attached by ligaments to the tibia. This enables movement in the knee joint.

The Lower Leg

The two bones of the lower leg are the tibia (shinbone) in front and the fibula behind. The tibia is the larger of the two and extends from the knee to the ankle. The upper end of the tibia has two articulating facets into which the condyles of the femur fit to form the knee joint. The lower end of the tibia articulates with one of the tarsals to form the ankle joint. The fibula is smaller than the tibia and is situated on the outside and slightly behind it. The upper end articulates with the tibia but does not form part of the knee joint. The lower end forms part of the ankle joint.

The Ankle

There are seven short, thick tarsal bones, the largest of which is the heel bone (calcaneum), which presses firmly onto the ground when one stands, walks or runs. The calf muscles are attached to the calcenum, allowing the heel to be lifted during locomotion.

The Arch of the Foot

The arch is formed partly by some of the tarsals but mainly by the five long metatarsals, which extends from the tarsals to the toes. The arch is modified for receiving the weight of the body.

The Toes

There are fourteen short phalanges in the toes of each foot. The big toe has two phalanges and the other toes have three in each.
Name and describe the three major categories of joints and the movements allowed by each. Describe a common homeostatic imbalance of joints.
Fibrous joints are the bones united by fibrous tissue, e.g. the sutures of the skull.
Cartilaginous joints’ bone ends are connected by cartilage. e.g. pubic symphysis of pelvis and intervertbral joints of spinal column.
Synovial joints are which articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid.
1. Name the three types of muscle tissue and describe the structure and function of each tissue type as well as general muscle functions.

Cardiac muscle tissue forms the bulk of the wall of the heart. Like skeletal muscle tissue, it is striated (the muscle fibers contain alternating light and dark bands (striations) that are perpendicular to the long axes of the fibers). Unlike skeletal muscle tissue, its contraction is usually not under conscious control (involuntary).


Smooth muscle tissue is located in the walls of hollow internal structures such as blood vessels, the stomach, intestines, and urinary bladder. Smooth muscle fibers are usually involuntary (not under conscious control), and they are nonstriated (smooth). Smooth muscle tissue, like skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue, can undergo hypertrophy. In addition, certain smooth muscle fibres, such as those in the uterus, retain their capacity for division and can grow by hyperplasia.


Skeletal muscle tissue is named for its location - attached to bones. It is striated; that is, the fibers (cells) contain alternating light and dark bands (striations) that are perpendicular to the long axes of the fibers. Skeletal muscle tissue can be made to contract or relax by conscious control (voluntary).

All skeletal muscle fibres are not alike in structure or function. For example, skeletal muscle fibres vary in colour depending on their content of myoglobin (myoglobin stores oxygen until needed by the mitochondria). Skeletal muscle fibres contract with different velocities, depending on their ability to split Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). Faster contracting fibres have greater ability to split ATP. In addition, skeletal muscle fibres vary with respect to the metabolic processes they use to generate ATP. They also differ in terms of the onset of fatigue. Based on various structural and functional characteristics, skeletal muscle fibres are classified into three types: Type I fibres, Type II B fibres and type II A fibres.
Identify the microscopic anatomy of skeletal muscle and skeletal muscle activity.
Main Ranges of Motion:
1) Flexion: bending a joint to decrease the angle between two bones or two body parts. Bending the elbow, or clenching a hand into a fist, are examples of flexion. When sitting down, the knees are flexed. Flexion of the hip or shoulder moves the limb forward towards the anterior side of the body.
2) Extension: straitening and extending of the joint to increase the angle between two bones or body parts. When standing up, the knees are extended. Extension of the hip or shoulder moves the limb backward towards the posterior side of the body.
3) Abduction: Moving the body part away from the body. Abduction of the wrist is called radial deviation. Raising the arms laterally, to the sides, is an example of abduction.
4) Adduction: moving the body part toward the midline of the body. Dropping the arms to the sides, or bringing the knees together, are examples of adduction. In the case of the fingers or toes, adduction is closing the digits together. Adduction of the wrist is called ulnar deviation.
5) Rotation: Moving the body part around its axis.
6) Internal rotation or medial rotation of the shoulder or hip would point the toes or the flexed forearm inwards towards the midline.
7) External rotation or lateral rotation is the opposite. It would turn the toes or the flexed forearm outwards away from the midline.
8) Supination: Turning the palm of the hand upward.
9) Pronation: Turning the palm of the hand outward.
10) Eversion: Turning the body part outward.
11) Inversion: turning the body part inward.
12) Planter flexion: Bending of the foot that causes the toe to point downward, as if pressing an automobile pedal.
14) Dorsiflexion: Bending of the foot that causes the toe to point upward.
15) Circumduction - The circular (or, more precisely, conical) movement of a body part, such as a ball-and-socket joint or the eye. It consists of a combination of flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction. "Windmilling" the arms or rotating the hand from the wrist are examples of circumductive movement.
16) Opposition - A motion involving a grasping motion of the thumb and fingers.
17) Reposition - To release an object by spreading the fingers and thumb.
Muscles and Ranges of Motion
1) Spinal Column - The vertebral column has the following normal ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension, Lateral Flexion and Rotation.
2) Shoulder Girdle - The shoulder girdle has the following normal ranges of movement: Elevation, Depression, Adduction and Abduction.
4) Shoulder Joint - The shoulder joint has the following normal ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension, Adduction, Abduction and Medial Rotation.
5) Elbow Joint - The elbow joint has the following normal ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension, Pronation and Supination.
6) Wrist Joint - The wrist joint has the following normal ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension, Adduction, Abduction and Circumduction
7) Hip Joint - The hip joint has the following normal ranges of movement: Flexion, Extension, Adduction, Abduction, Medial Rotation and Lateral Rotation.
8) Knee Joint - The knee joint has the following normal ranges of movement: Flexion and Extension.
9) Ankle Joint - The ankle joint has the following normal ranges of movement: Plantarflexion, Dorsiflexion, Inversion and Eversion.