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18 Cards in this Set

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microtuble functions in all cells include being a ________ for organelles and secretory vesicles, helping to __________, and forming the ________ along which________.

1. highway


2. form the ER


3. mitotic spindle


4. chromosomes move during mitosis

in specialized cells microtubles can be found as ______, which ________, or ______ which help the cell ______.

1. cilia


2. move things over cells


3. flagella


4. move

microtubles can help move the placement of _______. they can also ________

golgi apparatus


transport membrane-bound organelles in cell

in the mitotic spindles _____ act as the spindle poles

centrosomes

in cilia, the MTOC acts as _______

basal body

cilia have functions in both the ______ where it ______ and the ______ where it ______.

1. throat


2. moves particles


3. oviduct


4. moves eggs

How does MTOC function in neurons?

microtubules are made of _______, which include _______ subunits.

1. tubulin dimers


2. alpha and beta subunits

both alpha and beta have ______ attached to them

GTP

new dimers add to the _____ end of the protofilaments

+ end

GTP _______ the entire Microtubule. When the cap is lost, _________ happens. This is called ________.

1.stabilizes


2. rapid shrinking


3. dynamic instability

how is a protofilament rescued?

by adding alpha/beta GTP cap back on

what is taxol and how does taxol work?

taxol is a cancer drug that stabilizes microtubules against depolymerization and therefore prevents mitosis

______ are the origins of microtubules, there is a pair of ______ surrounded _________by nucleating sites of _________ that the positive ends grow from.

centrosomes


centrioles


pericontriolar material


gamma-tubulin ring complexes

_________ initiates new microtubules. They _______.

gamma-TURCs, they "cap" the (-) end.

microtubules are ______ in interphase and ______ in mitosis

long


short

in mitotic cells, ________ causes shorter microtubules, where in interphase ________.

tubulin GTPase activity causes catastrophe


there is less catastrophe

the difference in microtubule polymerization and depolymerization is ________ in interphase and mitotic cells. The rate of catastrophe is ______ in mitotic cells.

equal


5x greater