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284 Cards in this Set

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A political theory that states all power should be held by one ruler
The overthrowing of 1 government and the replacement of it, by another
Government by people, represented by them or by elected respresentatives
The practice of merchants; commercialism
A political and economical system; relation of a vassal and its lord is characterized by homage and protection
the upper, noble and rich class
Middle Class
Between the upper and lower, they often face a stagnant economy, some education
Not bound by any religious faction
An arbitrator between 2 or more groups
Conservative Backlash
A retaliation from often strict religious groups
Liberlizing elements
Elements needed to free a nation, people
Democratizing elements
Elements needed for political freedom
The search of new borders and areas
The act of acquiring nations for the benefit of the mother nation's economy
Lacking previous experience of the sort
A policy of extending a nation's powers through diplomacy or military practice
Economic Exploitation
The misuse, taking advantage of another, often more beneficial economy
the use of reason to scrutinize humanitarian reforms
The joining of two or more groups
The growing or birth of production
A policy of extending a nation's powers through diplomacy or military practice
Western Hemisphere
Often known as Western Europe or USA
Devotion to the culture of a nation
The study of heredity improvement of the human race controlled by selective breeding
Belief in one's ethnic superiority
Social Darwinism
The belief that one achieves more than others by genetic or biological superiority
White Man's Burden/Rudyard Kipling
The belief that god asked Caucasians to enslave or take responsibility of the colored
Middle Kingdom
Communication Revolution
A change in the way people communicate
The change from rural to urban lifestyle
Application of science, for commercial or industrial objectives
Manufactured/finished goods
The completion of raw material
Raw materials
Unfinished products, at its first stage
Atlantic World
The water ways, between continents
Plantation system
The use of cotton gins and slaves for production
Monroe Doctrine
The proclamation that prevented European nations from colonizing in the Americas
Foreign investment
Investing in other countries' economies
The initial amount of money to start a business
Ottoman Empire
Modern Day Turkey
Domestic/putting out system
Working on pieces of a product at home and the finalizing and selling them in the marketplace
Tanzimat Reforms
Reorganization in the Ottoman Empire
Diplomatic jurisdiction, exempted from local jurisdiction
Suez Canal
Canal invested in by the US, located in Panama
Qing China
The last Chinese dynasty
Opium War
The war that led to Western imperialism in China
Opium Trade
The trade of illegal narcotics in China
A person in bondage or servitude
Commodore Perry
US Commodore who defeated British on Lake Erie
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
The triangular slave trade - from Africa to Caribbean and then the Americas
Mass production
The generating of produce in vast quantities
Capitalism is an evolving concept, which is derived from earlier European economic practices (Feudalism, Imperialism, Mercantilism). Capitalism is widely considered to be the dominant economic system in the world. There is continuing debate over the definition, nature and scope of this system.
Enclosure movement
during the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes
Second Agricultural Revolution
A period of technological change from 1600s to mid 1900s beginning in Western Europe, beginning with preindustrial improvements like crop rotation and better horse collars, and concluding with industrial innovations to replace human labor with machines and to supplement natural fertilizers and pesticides with chemical ones
Steam power
steam engine is a heat engine that makes use of the thermal energy that exists in steam, converting it to mechanical work. Steam engines were used in pumps, locomotive trains and steam ships, and was essential to the Industrial Revolution. They are still used for electrical power generation using a steam turbine
Spinning Jenny
The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented circa 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, near Blackburn, in Lancashire in the north west of England. The device dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a single worker able to work eight or more spools at once.
Protestant work ethic
a value system that stresses the moral value of work, self-discipline, and individual responsbility as the means to improving one's economic well being; important in the industrial revolution because of its stress in hard work, etc.
Wealth of Nations/Adam Smith
Considered the founding father of economics, Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776. His most famous concept was that markets guide economic activity and act like an "invisible hand" - allocating resources through prices, which rise when there is a shortage of a commodity and fall when it is plentiful
Laissez faire capitalism
Laissez-faire is short for "laissez-faire, laissez-passer," a French phrase meaning idiomatically "leave to do, leave to pass" or more accurately "let things alone, let them pass." First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as a injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. Laissez-faire economic policy is in direct contrast to static economic policy.
Bessemer Process
Process of rendering cast iron malleable by the introduction of air into the fluid metal to remove carbon. This was the first process for mass-producing steel inexpensively.
Factory system
The factory system was a method of manufacturing adopted in England during the Industrial Revolution. Workers would come to work in a city factory, often making low-quality goods in mass amounts. The method prior to the introduction of factories was the domestic system. The result of the factory system was that the quality of goods declined. Since factories were based in large cities, people from rural areas moved into the city.
Interchangeable parts
important for the industrial revolution because it signified the ability to change parts of products comparatively easier than before
Assembly line
An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are added to a product in a sequential manner to create an end product
Transportation revolution
a term often used by historians to describe the dramatic improvement in transportation in the West that took place in the early 1800s. The Transportation Revolution included greatly improved roads, the development of canals, and the invention of the steamboat and railroad. Shipping costs were lowered as much as 90 percent in this era, which gave a big boost to trade and the settlement of new areas of land.
new class of factory workers that emerged as a result of the industrial revolution
Reform movements
movements that occurred, often, at the end of the industrial revolution, such as the feminist and labor union movements
Labor unions
A union is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues; emerged at the end of the IR
Communist Manifesto/Karl Marx
document relating proletariat with the IR, proletariat should overthrow bourgeoisie - roots of communism
Workers in Britain (1810-1820) who responded to replacement of human labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution by attempting to destroy the machines; named after a mythical leader. Ned Ludd.
United States Civil War
1861-1865 - First modern war using industrial revolution, ironclad ships, new technology, massive deaths
agriculture based on only one crop; resulted in many European colonies in 1800-1900 because of mercantilism
"Banana Republic"
a small country (especially in Central Americaa) that is politically unstable and whose economy is dominated monoculture because of European mercantilism
Popular consumption
goods that are consumed by a large percentage of the population around the IR, such as textiles
significant to the IR because entrepreneurs are who help begin the IR
Partial modernization
industrialization but only to a certain extent; see Samual Hungtinton's Clas of Civilizations
Meiji Restoration
The Meiji Restoration also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japan's political and social structure. It occurred from 1866 to 1869, a period of 4 years that transvereses both the late Edo (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and beginning of the Meiji Era. Probably the most important foreign account of the events of 1862-69 is contained in A Diplomatic Japan by Sir Ernest S...?
Huge industrial combines created in Japan in the 1890s as part of the process of industrialization
Textile mills
a factory for making textiles, one of the 1st major industries during the IR
Class tension
tension between classes during the IR due to income gap, social treatment, etc.
voting rights; suffrage movement; universal suffrage
traditional family life
involved a larger family with many children for agricultural work, etc.
Cotton gin/Eli Whitney
The cotton gin is a machine invented in 1793 invented by American Eli Whitney (granted a patent on March 14, 1794) to mechanize the production of cotton fiber. Led to an increase of Atlantic Slave Trade
Cotton gin/Eli Whitney
The cotton gin is a machine invented in 1793 invented by American Eli Whitney (granted a patent on March 14, 1794) to mechanize the production of cotton fiber. Led to an increase of Atlantic Slave Trade
A muckracker is a journalist, author or filmmaker who investigates and exposes societal issues, such as political corruption, corporate crime, child labor, condition in slums and prisons, unsanitary conditions in food processing plants, fraudulent claims by manufacturers of patent medicines and similar topics.
Settlement Houses
neighborhood centers in urban areas that provided literacy, classes, daycare, entertainment - like a YMCA
Women's Emancipation movements
Movement for greater female rights; referred to as feminist movement
Push factors
conditions in a location or region that encourage people to migrate from it
pull factors
attract or pull an organization towards a new location, eg the availability of cheaper skilled labor.
settler colonies
colonies with, you guessed it, settlers
A pogrom (from Russian: "NORPOM" (meaning "wreaking of havoc") is a massive violent attack on a particular ethnic of religious group with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious center). The term has historically been used to denote massive acts of violence, either spontaneous or premeditated, against Jews, but has been applied to similar incidents against other
Islamic slave trade
continued slave trade on the west coast of Africa
country founded by freed American slaves
life expectancy rates
expected age until death - improved due to improved health care, brief drops at beginning of Industrial Revolution due to living conditions.
infant mortality rates
number of babies per 1000 who die at birth
birth rate
number of births eventually drops again as middle class has less need for many kids
Louis Pasteur
creator of germ theory and pasteurization - led to improved health
sweet potato
important NA starch in China
finished goods
manufactured goods
water pollution
pollution in the water; from poor sanitation
various diseases that spread through urban eras during the IR
upper class women
affluent women with absolutely no lives; led to women's rights movements at the end of the IR
Victorian Age
the era of Britain's industrial revolution and Queen Victoria's reign from 1837-1901
social mobility
the ability of an individual to change his/her social status
supporters of ending slavery
emancipation of Russian serfs
edict issued in 1861 by Alexander II
a movement to moderate and lessen alcohol consumption
constitutional monarchy
a monarchy whose power is defined and limited by a constitution (defines monarch as head of state)
John Locke
English philosopher who argued that the government's power came from the people and that revolution against tyrants was acceptable
social contract
an agreement between a state and its citizens to define the states powers and the citizens rights
Seven Years War
global war between France and Britain from 1756 to 1763
"taxation without representation"
Taxes were levied on American colonies, but were not represented in Britains parliament
Common Sense/Thomas Paine
writing by American revolutionary that advocated separation from Britain and republican government
Declaration of Independence/Thomas Jefferson
document outlying America's separation from Britain and the reasons why, written by American political and revolutionary leader
causes of French Revolution
absolute monarchy abuses power, policies of Louis XVI, economic troubles, war debts, and droughts
First/Second/Third Estate
nobility, clergy, everybody else
National Assembly
France's representative body
Declaration of the Rights of Man
French revolutionary document that outlined the rights of the people
Reign of Terror
the period where the monarchy and aristocracy were targeted along with the opponents of the French Revolution
the government of revolutionary France from 1795 to 1799
Cycle of Revolution
calls for change from monarchy followed by moderate government followed by radical government followed by moderate government followed by monarchy
Universal manhood suffrage
voting rights extended without discrimination
Nationalistic uprisings
independence movements based on loyalty to free states
Guerilla warfare
unorganized warfare using hit and run tactics
absolute leader of France who conquered most of Europe and was defeated in 1815
Congress of Vienna
European meeting after Napoleon's defeat to try and restore political stability and settle diplomatic disputes
Congress System/Metternich
Austrian diplomat at the Congress of Vienna - system of Europe working together
spirit of conservatism
after era of revolution attempt by European diplomats to return order to the good o' days when autocracy ruled and people stopped rebelling
democratic movement that called for liberalism and extended rights
parliamentary system
representative government led by a prime minister
aggressive war-based ideology
Revolution of 1848
causes - bas harvests, economic stagnation, reaction against conservative rule, negative social and economic effects of the Industrial Revolution and nationalism
Revolution of 1848
effects - forced King of Prussia to grant constitutional reforms, highlighted power of nationalism, unified Germany and Italy, political, social, and economic issues of the people have to be met
Toussaint L'Ouverture
a leader of the Haitian revolt against France
Louisiana Territory
French territory in the United States
Latin America Wars of Indepedence
Causes - growing sense of nationalism, colonial economic policies, social class system, Napoleon
military juntas or governments - military men that take over power - sets precedent
Economic Backwardness
Latin America - caused by mercantilism and monoculture system
Miguel Hidalgo
Creole priest in Mexico who led rebellion against Spain
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary who fought in the revolution from 1910 to 1917
Sino-Japanese War
war fought between China and Japan over Korea from 1894 to 1895
Empress Cixi
disastrous Chinese monarch whose policies led to economic stagnation and China's decline
"Hundred Days Reform"
103 days of social and institutional reform in 1898 launched by the Qing emperor of China, Guangxu
Abdication of Manchu Emperor
emperor abdicates in 1912 - ends foreign rule - Mandate of Heaven dynasties
Sun Yat-sen
father of modern china and institutes constitutional democracy
People's Principles
nationalism, democracy, people's livelihood
Nationalist Party
Kuomintang - Chinese political party that favored republican government
Chiang Kai-shek
leader of the Kuomintang and founder of the Republic of China
Simon Bolivar
Creole military leader who fought for Colombian independence between 1817 and 1822
Jose de San Martin
leader of independence movement in Rio de la Plata; successful in 1816
King John VI
Portuguese King who ruled in Brazil from 1808 to 1820
King Pedro/Pedro II
power to Pedro II rules for most of 19th century. Stable very powerful in Latin America. One of the largest land owners in Latin America - lobbies to keep conservative rule economic/social/political interest
Catholic Church in Latin America
lobbies to keep conservative rule, economic/social/political interest
All Russians had to learn Russian language and convert to orthodoxy, anyone who didn't was persecuted, Jews.
Czar Nicholas II
doesn't react to revolution, socialists organize, tried to rally Russians around the falg but lost against Japanese something like parliament has no real power, every time they tried to make change, czar disbands them.
Indian National Congress
English speaking, educated upper class, most influential is Mohandas K. Gandhi-1869
Mohandas Gandhi
Lived in S. Africa from 1893-1915, defended rights of Indian living under apartheid (areas that has racism), and returned to India as a central figure in freedom movement, nonviolent resistance
European born Foreign
Indigenous and European mixed
Mixed European and black
More radical socialism (economic competition is inherently unfair and leads to injustice/inequality)
willing to respect or accept behavior or opinions different from one's own. Open to new ideas
not changing or innovating, holding on to traditional
abolition of all government the organization of society on voluntary, cooperative basis without recourse to force or compulsion
Victor Emmanuel II
King of Sardinia + Count Camillo Cavour, push nationalism, towards unification of Italy
Giuseppi Garibaldi
Italian nationalist kicks out Spain.
Otto von Bismarck
Prime minister of Germany, build the military. Consolidating the region under Prussia's authority
King William II
Emperor of the German Empire
First/Second Reich
First Reich "Holy Roman Empire", second Reich "second empire"
Irish home rule
should north, split catholic/protestant remain British or Irish, should Ireland be set free
Second and Third Reform Acts
1867/1885 - universal suffrage
Fourth Republic
France becomes democratic republic - universal suffrage
Dreyfus Affair
Jewish officer accused of selling secrets to Germ
"compromise" - becomes Austria-Hungary
Crimean War
1853-56, Tsar Alexander II forced to implement liberal reforms, Modernize Russia, Emancipation of serfs in 1861, lightened censorship, widened powers of local govt, 1881, Alexander II assassinated
Tokugawa Shogunate
seized control in 1600s, authority with emperor, reality with shogunate, Samurai top,centralized Japan. Warring states to peaceful country
warrior class, top during Shogunate
Stratified society
no chance for social mobility
Meiji Restoration
Japan's modern age, embrace west to survive/compete
Hereditary privileges
no more, abolishes feudalism. meritocracy
Constitution of 1890
elected parliament, diet-Japan. Had no real power, hardly representative, Emperor still had power
Had no real power, hardly representative, Emperor still had power
Social Hierarchy
during Tokugaw social hierarchy ended, based on merit, civil service exam
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer, Vindication of the Rights of Women - 1792
"Women Question"
what is their sphere and role
"Cult of true womanhood"
virtues of submissiveness, piety, domesticity, modesty, feminity
early phases of feminist reform
reform family/divorce law, own property/ divorce, teaching and nursing (women's shere)
later phases of feminist reform
pushed for suffrage led by upper class women
"dismal science"
Negative views of capitalism
Essay on Population/Thomas Malthus
population growth led by poverty, war diseases, starvation, needed to control population
Iron Law of Wages/David Ricardo
employers will pay lowest possible wage to make money. Supply of labor goes up then salaries will drop.
economic competition is inherently unfair and leads to injustice/inequality
Ideally - perfect justice, social equality and plenty
Eastern Question
gradual decline of the Ottoman Empire presented Europe with choices
"sick man of Europe"
Ottoman Empire- falling apart, but better than chaos
literacy rates
Literacy rates rose
Fridrich Nietzche
"God is Dead", All systems of morality valueless in the materialistic modern age.
Most important - emotion/passion, more self expression, Self-realization of the individual, heroism, love of the natural world
Rejected Romanticism's idealized dramatic outlook, critical view of life. detail of everyday existence, poverty, social hypocrisy, class injustice.
Cecil Rhodes - Britain/Africa
"I contend that we are the finest race in the world, and the more of it we inhabit, the better it is"
economic imperialism
practice of promoting the economy of one nation in another. It is usually the case that the former is a large economically or militarily powerful nation and the latter is a smaller and less developed.
la mission civilisatric
French idea of spreading their advanced civilization to others through colonization. Also referred to as "mission civilisatrice."
British East India Company
A joint-stock company of investors with the intent to favor trade privileges in India. Eventually transformed from a commercial trading venture to one with virtually ruled India.
"sun never sets on the British Empire"
a phrase that emerged in response to the British dominance during the Modern Era. British was the first nation to industrialize and thus, was able to gain an advantage over all other competing nations.
Sepoy Mutiny
May 10th 1857. Sepoys, trained Indians as British soldiers were angered by the rumors that rigle ammos were greased with lard and beef fat. Thus, they mutinied. The mutiny was harshly crushed by the British.
was employed by the Munghals to collect taxes from peasants
The basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the function of a community or society, such as transportation and communication systems, water and power lines, and public institutions including schools, post offices, and prisons.
civil service exam
exam all Chinese government official-to-be's had to go through in order to prove themselves. Very rigorous, although once you passed, instant success was guaranteed.
funeral custom in which the window immolated herself on her husband's funeral pyre.
The practice of robbery and assassination practiced by the Thugs.
sectarian strife
Violent conflict between Muslim and Coptic Christians in Egypt.
Dutch East India Company
was established on March 20, 1602, when the Estates- general of the Neatherlands granted it a monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia. It was the first multinational corporation in the world and it was the first company to issue stock.
The island of Singapore was ceded to the British East India Company in 1819, and the city was founded the same year by Sir Thomas Raffles. The British took complete control in 1824 and added Singapore to the newly formed Straits Settlements in 1826. Otherwise known as the place we currently live in.
King Chulalongkorn
fifth king of the Chakri dynasty of Thailand.
Spanish American War
took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States of America gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. Cuba would be declared Independent in 1902.
"sleeping dragon"
term given to China by Napoleon, regarding their untapped population, size and resources.
Gold or Silver considered with respect to quantity rather than value.
"unequal treaties"
a series of treaties signed by several Asian States, including the Qing Empire in China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Chosun Korea, and foreign powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries. This was a period during which these states were largely unable to resist the military and economic pressures of the primary Western powers. China forced to open up all its ports to Britain.
Christian missionaries
Christians who traveled into other countries and attempted to spread the Christian faith. Enthusiastically persecuted in Japan by Tokugawa
chinese custom of binding women's feet. They preferred small feet? Confined women to homes. Degrading practice for women of China.
White Lotus Rebellion
It apparently began as a tax protest led by the White Lotus Society, a secret religious society that forecast the advent of the Buddha, advocated restoration of the native Chinese Ming dynasty, and promised personal salvation to its followers
Taping Rebellion
Rebellion initiated by Hong Xiuquan to overthrow the Manchurians and establish the kingdom of Heaven in China. Got off to an impressive start militarily but only because Hong avoided attacking large urban centers.
Hong Xiuquan
leader of the Taiping Rebellion. Believed he was the son of Jesus Christ. Failed the civil service examination many times.
Open Door Policy
The Open Door Policy is the maintenance in a certain territory of equal commercial and industrial rights for the nationals of all countries
Boxer Rebellion
was a violent movement against non-Chinese commercial, political, religious and technological influence in china during the final years of the 19th century.
Henry Puyi
Last emperor of the Qing Dynasty to rule over China. No more emperors after him.
"Dark Continent"
A former name for Africa, so used because its hinterland was largely unknown and therefore mysterious to Europeans until the 19th century
"Scramble for Africa"
The Scrambe for Africa began in 1881, when France moved into Tunis with Bismarck's encouragement. After centuries of neglect, Europeans began to expand their influence into Africa. Soon, it took on a full-fledged land grab in Africa by European powers.
Berlin Conference
The Berlin Conference of 1884-85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa
Ethiopia is a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red Sea. Only countries that don't fall to colonialism during the scramble for Africa
Coptic Christian Kingdom
One of the few regions in Africa unoccupied by the Europeans.
Ashanti Kingdom
was a powerful state in West Africa in the years prior to European colonization. It was located in what is today southern and central Ghana.
Indians trained to be British soldiers
Boer War
The Boer Wars was the name given to the South African Wars of 1880-1 and 1899-1902, that were fought between the British and the descendants of the Dutch Settlers (Boers) in Africa
Shaku Zulu
widely credited with transforming the Zulu tribe, from a small clan, into the beginnings of a nation that held sway over that portion of Southern Africa between the Phongolo and Mzimkhulu rivers
African National Congress
founded to defend the rights of the black majority
Muhammad Ali
Egyptian ruler who caused Egypt to industrialize
An infectious disease characterized by cycles of chills, fever, and sweating = when cure was found, Europe could go to internal Africa
Intertribal warfare
conflict between tribes
Belgium - Congo
the formal title of present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) between King Leopold II's formal relinquishment of personal control over the state of Belgium on 15 November, 1908, to the dawn of Congolese independence on 30 June 1960
"Great Game"
used to describe the rivalry and strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia
a major mountain range of southeast Europe extending about 563 km (350 mi) from eastern Yugoslavia through central Bulgaria to the Black Sea. Known as the most dangerous place on Earth, due to the presence of many different racial groups in the region. WWI starts here.
Young Turks
A member of a Turkish reformist and nationalist political party active in the early 20th century
Anglo-Egyptian Administration
an Anglo-Egyptian agreement restored Egyptian rule in Sudan but as part of a condominium or joint authority, exercised by Britain and Egypt. The agreement designated territory south of the twenty-second parallel as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
A leader who assumes the role of a messiah
"Long Peace"
Peace between 1871 and 1914 between European nations. Tensions are rising.
Alliance System
After the Franco-Prussian War, Bismarck held that Germany was a "satiated state" which should give up ideas of further conquest. Thus Bismarck organized a system of alliances designed to maintain Germany's hegemony on the European continent.
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine had originally been intended to keep European nations out of Latin America but the Roosevelt corollary was used as a justification for U.S. intervention in Latin America
Panama Canal
major shipping canal which cuts through the isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans - US encouraged Panama to rebel to get favorable deal for land
Spanish-American War
took place in 1898, and resulted in the U.S gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. Cuba would be declared Independent in 1902
Extreme nationalism characterized especially by a belligerent foreign policy
Modernization Theory
developed countries emphasize individuality and capitalism. Economic prosperity due to industrialization is the key to a nation's advancement. All countries will naturally modernize
Dependency Theory
less developed nations either intentionally or unintentionally depend on the developed nations for economic support. Some countries will never be able to break out of dependent cycle...modernization theory doesn't apply. Ex. Latin American nations depend on Europe during colonization. Later result in monoculture.
Marxist Theory
Socialism is the only way to a nation's prosperity. Also known as Communism.
Archduke Franz/Francis Ferdinand
Archduke of Austro-Hungary, assassinated by Serbs
movement supported by the Russian government that inspired resistance and rebellion in order to weaken their rival empires
Triple Entente
Russia, Britain, France
total war
military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nation's ability to engage in war
Tsar Nicholas II
tsar of Russia that abdicated the throne after street demonstrations and military mutinies in 1917, ending three hundred years of Romanov rule
trench warfare
Life in the trenches was numbing boredom punctuated by sheer terror. the presence of waist-deep mud, half-decayed corpses, trench rats, and lice made for a grim existence.
unoccupied land between military forces. Few people made it out of no man's land as it was filled with continuous machine-gun fire
home front
burden of producing supplies and maintaining industries that fell on the civilians not directly involved in conflict
V. I. Lenin
Marxist leader and anti-war activist, his activists were radical socialists called Bolsheviks. They pushed an end to the war and transference of legal authority to the soviets.
soviet workers' council in Saint Petersburg
"Peace, Land, Bread"
demands of peasants, battle cry of the 1917 revolution
British liner sunk in 1915, 128 Americans died and this began the public's movement away from neutrality
Weimar Republic
nickname given to the German state from 1919 to 1933. It was dubbed the "Weimar Republic" by historians in honor of the city of Weimar, where a national assembly convened to write and adopt a new constitution
Fourteen Points
peacetime proposal of Woodrow Wilson a full year before the negotiations. They were set on a philosophical foundation of idealism and included open agreements of peace, removal of economic barriers, equal trade opportunities, a reduction in armaments, a solution for colonial disputes, and a "general association of nations."
Big Four
Allied leaders who met at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919, after World War. They were President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Britain, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, and Premier Vittorio Orlando of Italy.
League of Nations
an established attempt to stave off war bit it proved to be largely infeffectual. Its two major flaws were that it had no power to enforce its decisions and that it depended on collective security to preserve peace. The U.S. never joined because the Senate rejected the idea. Germany and Japan left the League in 1933 while Italy resigned in 1937. The Soviet Union joined in 1934 but was kicked out in 1940. Laid foundations for the United Nations.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
assuaged the feelings of nationalists everywhere and, in some cases, functioned very well as Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia became independent nations
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austro-Hungary, Italy
Schlieffen Plan
German plan to defeat France and then turn to meet the Russians
Kaiser Wilhelm II
emperor of Germany in 1888 following the death of Frederick II.
Western Front
describes the "contested armed frontier" between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the Wes
originally a chess term, metaphor for other situations where there is a conflict or contest between two parties, such as war or political negotiations, and neither side is able to achieve victory, resulting in what is also called a dead heat, standoff, or deadlock
longest battle of the First World War based around the French stronghold in northeast France and the German's attempts to capture the city
mustard gas
a strong vesicant (blister-causing agent) first utilized in warfare in WWI by Germany
radical socialists that followed Lenin
originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, for the one part, and Russia, for the other part, declare that the state of war between them has ceased in 1918
Easter Rebellion
rebellion staged in Ireland in Easter Week, 1916. The Rising was an attempt by militant Irish republicans to win independence from Britain
influenza pandemic
an epidemic of the influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the human population. 1918-1920 pandemic of Spanish flu most serious, killed more people than WWI
Woodrow Wilson
twenty-eight president of the U.S.
Mustafa Kemal/Kemal Ataturk
army officer, revolutionary statesman, and founder of the Republic of Turkey as well as its first President.