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63 Cards in this Set

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UN
United Nations; international organization aimed at keeping world peace formed after World War II
Warsaw Pact
Soviet created organization as a countermove to match NATO
World Bank
made up of two unique development institutions owned by 185 member countries—the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA)
OEEC, EU
The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation; (OEEC) came into being on 16 April 1948. It emerged from the Marshall Plan and the Conference of Sixteen (Conference for European Economic Co-operation), which sought to establish a permanent organisation to continue work on a joint recovery programme and in particular to supervise the distribution of aid, European Union is an economic and political partnership between 27 democratic European countries
SALT agreements
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks in the 1970s where both sides agreed to reduce their nuclear weapon stores
superpower
state with a leading position in the international system and the ability to influence events and project power on a worldwide scale
Berlin Blockade
French, American, and British occupied portion of Berlin was attempted to be controlled by the Soviet Union as they blocked its rail and road access in June 1948. The western forces responded with the Berlin airlift of supplies and embargoed products from Soviet-controlled countries
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Association founded in 1949 as a regional military alliance against Soviet aggression
MAD
Mutually assured destruction; large stockpiling of weapons prevents actual fighting as there is a threat of complete destruction to both sides
38th parallel
area of partitioning of Korea after World War II. One of the first actions of the UN as they guaranteed "to provide the Republic of South Korea with all necessary aid to repel the aggressors" (aggressors being North Korea)
Cuban missile crisis
October 1962 Castro accepted Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuban shores. President Kennedy announced on television that there were photographs of missiles pointed right at the U.S. and that the U.S. would blockade the island until they were removed. Closest the Cold War ever came to conflict.
Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet Premier, withdrew missiles in return for U.S. promise not to invade Cuba
Betty Friedan
feminist author
civil rights movement
movement towards equality and civil rights primarily for African Americans and women the majority of which took place in the 1960's
hegemony
term used to describe the concept of dominance, usually militarily, by one country over others
"Brezhnev doctrine"
model of Soviet foreign policy, first and most clearly outlined by S. Kovalev in a September 26, 1968 Pravda article, entitled “Sovereignty and the International Obligations of Socialist Countries.” Policy that communist nations would protect each other against turning to capitalism
Prague Spring
1968, Czech government supported loosening of control. Soviet tanks were sent in and with no bloodshed the liberalization was ended
de-Stalinization
process began by premier Khrushchev. He ended the rule of terror and attempted to erase Stalin's name and image from Soviet society
detente
policy of reduction in hostilities adopted by the superpowers in the late 1960s
settler and non-settler colonies
terms used to describe the relationship between the colony and the mother country. Settler colonies are colonies that have created their own society, they are less controlled
Jawaharlal Nehru
first prime minister of independent India (1947–64), who established parliamentary government and became noted for his “neutralist” policies in foreign affairs.
dominion-status
an autonomous community of the British Empire and British Commonwealth prior to 1948
nonalignment
The political attitude of a state which does not associate or identify itself with the political ideology or objective espoused by other states, groups of states, or international causes, or with the foreign policies stemming therefrom
Geneva convention
1864 convention outlining part of international humanitarian law – a whole system of legal safeguards that cover the way wars may be fought and the protection of individuals
Abdel Nasser
Egyptian revolutionist that successfully drove British out of his country after 72 years of rule, under his presidency Egypt came out of intense poverty to prosperity, he became famous all around the Arab Peninsula after standing firm against the western nations and his efforts of combining the Arab power to combat anti-Muslim forces
FLN
socialist party in Algeria with the goal of liberation from French control
Kwame Nkrumah
influential pan-africanist who was the leader of Ghana
Jomo Kenyatta
first prime minister and president of Kenya
Cultural Revolution
youth remake of Chinese society supported by Mao
Juan and Eva Peron
President;First Lady of Argentina/second wife of Juan Peron/"Spiritual Leader of the Nation"
CIA-led coup (coup d'etat)
aka Bay of Pigs CIA backed insurgents landed on the beach and were quickly captured or killed
Sandinistas
Nicaraguan political party often referred to as the FLSN, focused on anti-imperialist struggle of Augusto Sandino
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Association founded in 1949 as a regional military alliance against Soviet aggression
IMF
International Monetary Fund; international organization that oversees the global financial system by observing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance
OPEC
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
iron curtain
organization of soviet-controlled states to create a division of Europe both physically and ideologically
Yalta
major World War II conference of the three chief Allied leaders, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great Britain, and Premier Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union (see photograph), which met at Yalta in the Crimea to plan the final defeat and occupation of Nazi Germany
Berlin Wall
wall dividing the eastern and western portions of Berlin controlled by the Soviet Union and the allies respectively
Warsaw Pact
Soviet created organization as a countermove to match NATO
Korean War
escalation of border clashes between North and South Korea resulting in the protected barrier of the 38th parallel
domino theory
theory that held if one nation fell to communism, the rest would follow
Richard Nixon
U.S. president who began the process of Vietnamization where the U.S. began to hand the war over the the South Vietnamese
Simone de Beauvoir
wrote The Second Sex, heralded a feminist revolution and remains a central text in the investigation of women's oppression and liberation
Bob Marley
musical artist who favored a peaceful mentality and hosted political concerts, supported the struggle of Africans
Martin Luther King, Jr.
pivotal member of the American Civil Rights movement, fought for equal treatment for African Americans and favored a peaceful approach of civil disobedience
Charles de Gaulle
French president who envisioned Europe as a third superpower and criticized NATO
Mao Zedong
leader of the People's Republic of China from its formation until his death, he favored Cultural Revolution and the Great Leap Forward
Alexander Dubcek
leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring)
Marshal Tito
President of Yugoslavia, attempted to rebuild and tie the country together after WWII
Vietnam
easternmost country in the Southeast Asia
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
leader of the Muslim League
Gandhi
Lived in S. Africa from 1893-1915, defended rights of Indian living under apartheid (areas that has racism), and returned to India as a central figure in freedom movement, nonviolent resistance
Bandung Conference
meeting dedicated to the struggle against colonialism and racism and promoting the ideal of a "third path"
Ho Chi Minh
prime minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Balfour Declaration
recognized the self-governing Dominions of the British Empire as fully autonomous states
Suez crisis
military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel beginning on 29 October 1956. The attack followed Egypt's decision of 26 July 1956 to nationalize the Suez Canal after the withdrawal of an offer by Britain and the United States to fund the building of the Aswan Dam
Negritude
literary and political movement that promoted solidarity in black identity against French colonial oppression
"Mau Mau" revolt
the Kikuyu movement that resented the British removal of Kikuyu farmers from their fertile farmland to their "tribal reserves" and reduced status as wage slaves; they were also called communists
Great Leap Forward
economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers into a modern, industrialized communist society
Lazaro Cardenas
president of Mexico from 1934 to 1940
Jacobo Arbenz Guzman
was the president of Guatemala from 1951 to 1954, when he was ousted in a coup d'état organized by the US Central Intelligence Agency, known as Operation PBSUCCESS, and was replaced by a military junta, headed by Colonel Carlos Castillo, plunging the country into chaos and long-lasting political turbulence
Somoza Family
influential political dynasty in Nicaragua