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53 Cards in this Set

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Chromatic
Melody or harmony built from many if not all 12 semitones of the octave. A Chromatic scale consists of ascending or descending sequence of semitones.
Diatonic
Melody or harmony built from the 7 tones of a major or minor scale. A diatonic scale encompasses patterns of 7 whole tones and semitones.
Affections (Doctrine)
Baroque doctrine of the union of text and music.
Virtuoso
Performer of extraordinary technical ability.
Improvisation
Creation of a musical composition while it is being performed, seen in Baroque ornamentation, Cadenzas of concertos, jazz, and some non-western musics.
Terraced Dynamics
Sudden change from full to soft, with no crescendo or decrescendo. Harpsichord could only play soft or loud notes.
Forte
Loud
Piano
Soft
Aria (da capo aria)
Lyric song for solo voice /w orchestral accompaniment, generally expressing intense emotion; found in opera, cantata, and oratorio.
Recitative
Solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text, often resulting in a disjunct vocal style; found in opera, cantata, and oratorio. Can be secco or accompagnato.
Librettist
Prepares the text, or script, of an opera.
Overture (Fr. and Italian)
Introductory movement, as in a opera or oratorio, often presenting melodies from arias to come. Also an orchestral work for concert performance.
Sinfonia
Short instrumental work, found in Baroque opera to facilitate scene changes.
Concertino
The smaller group of instruments in a concerto grosso.
Tutti (Ripieno)
Italian. All of the orchestra plays together opposite of the solo.
Dido's Lament
Purcell.
Spring from The Four Seasons
Vivaldi.
Water Music
Handel
The Messiah
Handel
Cantata 80: A Mighty Fortress is Our God.
Bach
The Art of The Fugue, Contrapunctus I.
Bach
Trill
Ornament consisting of the rapid alternation between one tone and the next or sometimes the tone below.
Tremolo
Rapid repetition of a tone; can be achieved instrumentally or vocally.
Ritornello Form
Short, recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto.
Episode
Interlude or intermediate section in the Baroque fugue that serves as an area of relaxation between statements of the subject.
Exposition
Opening section. In the Fugue, the first section in which the voices enter in turn with the subject. In Sonata-Allegro form, first section in which major thematic material is stated.
Subject
Main idea or theme of a work, as in a fugue.
Chorale
Congregational hymn of the German Lutheran Church.
Dates of The Baroque Era
1600 - 1750
Composers of The Baroque Era
1. Gabrielli
2. Purcell
3. Vivaldi
4. Handel
5. Bach
Baroque Genres
1. Opera
2. Solo Concerto
3. Concerto Grosso
4. Suite
5. Oratorio
6. Cantata
7. Fugue
Antiphonal
Performance style in which an ensemble is divided into two or more groups, performing in alternation and then together.
Collegium Musicum
Association of amateur musicians, popular in the Baroque Era. Also a modern university ensemble dedicated to the performance of music.
Basso Continuo
Italian for "Continuous Bass" Refers to performance group with a bass, chordal instrument (harpsichord, organ) and one bass melody instrument (cello, bassoon).
Tonality
Principle of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scale.
Tonic (Keynote)
First note of the scale or Key, do.
Opera
Music drama generally sung throughout, combining resources of vocal and instrumental music with poetry and drama, acting and pantomime, scenery and costumes.
Solo Concerto
Solo instrument and accompanying instrumental group. Violin most frequently used. Used mostly by Vivaldi.
Concerto Grosso
Baroque concerto type based the opposition of solo instruments (the concertino) and the orchestra (the ripieno)
Suite
Multi-movement work made up of a series of contrasting dance movements, generally all in the same key. (Also partita and orde)
Oratorio
Large-scale dynamic genre originating in the Baroque, based on a text of religious or serious character, performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra-like opera but without scenery, costumes, or action.
Cantata
Vocal genre for solo singers, chorus, and instrumentalists based on a lyric or dramatic poetic narrative. It generally consists of several movements, including recitatives, arias, and ensemble numbers.
Fugue
Polyphonic form popular in the Baroque Era in which one or more themes are developed by imitative concept.
Major
Scale consisting of 7 different tones that comprises a specific pattern of whole and half steps. Differs from minor scale primarily because that its third degree is raised a half step.
Minor
Scale consisting of 7 different tones that comprises of a specific pattern of whole and half steps. Differs from major scale in that it's third degree is lowered a half step.
Oratorio
Large-scale dynamic genre originating in the Baroque, based on a text of religious or serious character, performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra-like opera but without scenery, costumes, or action.
Cantata
Vocal genre for solo singers, chorus, and instrumentalists based on a lyric or dramatic poetic narrative. It generally consists of several movements, including recitatives, arias, and ensemble numbers.
Fugue
Polyphonic form popular in the Baroque Era in which one or more themes are developed by imitative concept.
Major
Scale consisting of 7 different tones that comprises a specific pattern of whole and half steps. Differs from minor scale primarily because that its third degree is raised a half step.
Minor
Scale consisting of 7 different tones that comprises of a specific pattern of whole and half steps. Differs from major scale in that it's third degree is lowered a half step.
Strings as in the Baroque Orchestra
1. Violin (I and II)
2. Viola
3. Cello
4. Double Bass
Basso Continuo as in the Baroque Orchestra
1. Harpsichord or Organ (Chords)
2. Cello or Bassoon (Bass Part)
Optional as in the Baroque Orchestra
1. Flute, Oboe, Bassoon
2. Trumpet, Horn
3. Timpani