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365 Cards in this Set

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Types Of Plastic?

Thermoplastic - Reheatable, Remouldable & Recylable Polymer Plastic

Thermosetting - Not Reheatable OR Remouldable

Elastomers - Distortable Under Pressure (Reversible)

ABS: Working Name, Properties & Uses

Working Name - Acrylonitrile Butadine Styrene

Properties - High Impact Strength, Lightweight, Tough, Scratch-resistant & Durable

Uses - Toy Manufacturing & Casings Etc.

CA: Working Name, Properties & Uses

Working Name - Cellulose Acetate

Properties - Lightweight, Rigid, Transparent, Non-flammable, Strong & Lightweight

Uses - Glass framing & Cutlery Handles

Nylon: Working Name, Properties & Uses

Working Name - Polyamide

Properties - Hard, Tough & Wear-Resistant

Uses - Gears & Bearings

PMMA: Working Name, Properties & Uses

Working Name - Acrylic

Properties - Tough, Hard, Durable & Easily Machined

Uses - Illuminated Signs & Light Units

PP: Working Name, Properties & Uses

Working Name - Polypropylene

Properties - Lightweight, Impact Resistant, Food-Safe & Chemical Resistant

Uses - Food containers & Medical Equipment

HIPS: Working Name, Properties & Uses

Working Name - High Impact Polystyrene

Properties - Impact Resistant, Strong & Lightweight

Uses - Toys & Refrigerator Lining

PS: Working Name, Properties & Uses

Working Name - Polystyrene

Properties - Lightweight, Rigid & Low Impact Strength

Uses - Packaging & Disposable Containers

LDPE: Working Name, Properties & Uses

Working Name - Low Density polyethylene

Properties - Lightweight, Chemical Resistant, Low Stiffness & Rigidity

Uses - Detergent Bottles & Toys

HDPE: Working Name, Properties & Uses

Working Name - High Density Polyethylene

Properties - Stiff & Chemical Resistant

Uses - Buckets & Bottles

uPVC: Working Name, Properties & Uses

Working Name - Polyvinyl Chloride

Properties - Chemical Resistant, Rigid, Hard, Tough, Lightweight & Weather Resistant

Uses - Guttering & Piping

PET: Working Name, Properties & Uses

Working Name - Polyethylene Terephtalate

Properties - Moderate Chemical Resistance

Uses - Clothing Fibres & Beer Bottles

PC - Working Name, Properties & Uses

Working Name - Polycarbonate

Properties - Chemical Resistant & Expensive

Uses - Protective Armour & Shielding

Epoxy Resin: Properties & Uses

Properties - Strong (Reinforced Fibers), Chemical & Wear-Resistant

Uses - Adhesives & Surface Coating

Melamine Formaldehyde: Properties & Uses

Properties - Rigid, Strong, Hard & Scratch-Resistant

Uses - Tableware & Decorative Laminates

Polyester Resins: Properties & Uses

Properties - Rigid, Brittle, Heat & Chemical-Resistant

Uses - (GRP) Glass Reinforced Plastic & Casting

Urea Formaldehyde: Properties & Uses

Properties - Rigid, Hard, Strong, Brittle, Heat-Resistant & Electrical Insulator

Uses - Adhesives & Electrical Fittings

What is a Polymer?

A molecular structure built up chiefly from a large number of similar units bonded together (Synthetic organic material).

What is a Plastic?

Made up of long chains of molecules E.g. Hydrocarbons or derived from natural sources.

Why are Plastics Popular?

- Their properties comparatively perform exceptionally better than other materials

- Polypropylene Jug Kettle (Originally Stainless Steel)

Natural Sources Of Plastic?

- Plants (Cellulose)

- Trees (Resin, Latex & Amber)

- Insects (Shellac-Polish)

- Animals (Horn & Milk Glues)

`Synthetic Sources Of Plastic?

- Crude Oil (Hydrocarbons)

- Coal

- Natural Gas

Types Of Plastic Additives?

- Fillers (Reducing Plastic Bulk)

- Flame Retardants (Reducing Combustion Risk)

- Anti Static Agents (Reduce Static Charge Build Up Effects)

- Plasticiser (To Improve Flow Properties During Molding)

- Stabilizers (Reduce UV Light Effects)

Types Of Heat Treatment For Plastics?

Annealing, Hardening, Tempering & Normalizing (Heat for Property Modification).

Definition Of Biodegradable?

Natural processes breaking down material E.g. Sunlight & Rain (Biologically rich environment).

Degradation Definition?

Polymer deterioration.

What is Biopol?

A cellulose polymer (For biodegradable packaging)

Applications Of Biodegradable Plastic?

- Packaging & Shopping bags

- Food trays & Soft drinks bottles

PHA's (Polyhydroxyalkanoates) & PHB's (Polyhydroxybutyrate) Production & Uses?

- Bacterial fermentation of plant sugars

- PHA (biopol) is harvested from bacteria grown in cultures

- PHB & variations of this polymer used expansively in packaging

What are Oxo-degradable Polymers?

- Additives to promote shorter degradation times

- Photo degradable polymers will breakdown by UV (Making them more readily biodegradable)

What are Water-soluble Polymers?

Liquid detergent pouches make use of the water-soluble properties of these materials to dispense detergent solely in warm water contact.

Polymer Processing: Joining Processes?

Thermoplastics: Integral snap fixings, Captive nuts, Thermal welding, Ultrasonic welding, Adhesives & Screw fixings

Thermosetting: Screw fixings & Adhesives

Polymer Processing: Molding Processes?

Thermoplastics: Calendaring, Rotational, Injection, Blow & Extrusion

Thermosetting: Compression

Polymer Processing: Forming Processes?

Thermoplastics: Vaccuum, Thermo & Line Bending

Thermosetting: N/A

What is Injection Molding?

Processing thermoplastic material (Normally, Into complex 3D shapes).

Describe the Injection Molding Process?

1. Plastic granules & additives inserted to hopper (falling onto archimedian screw).

2. Rotation of screw (via motor) forcing polymer forward to heaters (softening) to ensure readiness to be injected into mold.

3. Hydraulic ram forces polymer into mold (Pressure ensuring cavity filled)

4. Cooling & solidification. Mold halves opened. Ejector pins activate to release product from mold.

5. Mold closed & process ready to be repeated.

Advantages of Injection Molding?

- Ability to produce complex 3D shapes

- High volumes at consistent quality

- Metal inserts can be included in item produced

Disadvantages of Injection Molding?

- Molds are expensive

- Initial set up costs are high

What is Blow Molding?

Processing thermoplastic material into re-entrant shapes with a single opening E.g. Soft drink bottle

What is a Parison?

The extruded tube of thermoplastic material

Describe the Blow Molding Process?

1. Parison heated & softened polymer extruded vertically downward.

2. Mold halves close, trapping upper end of parison (encapsulation).

3. Hot air blown into parison (forces to follow mold shape, expanding polymer to interior sides).

4. Mold cools polymer allowing release of product.

5. Mold halves open & product extracted.

Advantages of Blow Molding?

- Rapid method of producing hollow objects with narrow necks

- Non circular shapes producible

Disadvantages of Blow Molding?

- Expensive molds

- Difficult to produce re-entrant shapes (difficult extraction)

- Triangular shaped bottles difficult to produce

What is Rotational Molding?

Powdered plastic taking the shape of a fully enclosed mold whilst heating creating rigid, solidified material.

What is Cycle Time?

Time taken to complete an operation within a production process.

Describe the Rotational Molding Process?

1. Load molds with precise weight of thermoplastic powder. Mold halves clamped.

2. Molds rotated towards heat chamber to melt material. Continuous rotation ensures all mold covered.

3. Cooling chamber & ready to extract.

4. Mold returned to staring point & halves separated & product removed.

Advantages of Rotational Molding?

- One piece moldings producible

- Ideal for both rigid, tough & flexible shapes

- Surface texture applicable & large size range possible

- Molds tend to be cheaper (High pressure not required)

Disadvantages of Rotational Molding?

- Only hollow shapes producible

What is Vacuum Forming?

Thermoplastic polymer heated & formed to shape (Using vacuum) to pull material down onto male mold.

What is Thermoforming?

Virtually vacuum forming, however, air pressure & female mold assist too, enabling greater detail to be achieved.

Describe the Vacuum Forming Process?

1. Polymer material heated to slightly above softening point, then held securely in frame.

2. Mold halves closed & vacuum applied through lower mold.

3. Upper mold ensures detail achieved.

Advantages of Vacuum Forming?

- Low cost process

- Good smooth shapes with additional detail

Disadvantages of Vacuum Forming?

- Deep molds (Effectively thinning wall thickness where structured)

- Limited designs (Simple)

- Trimming needed afterwards

What is Extrusion?

Plastic production that has a uniform cross-section E.g. Curtain rails & gutters. Can also be used to insulate wires with a polymer.

Describe the Plastic Extrusion Process?

1. Thermoplastic pellets inserted, falling onto rotating archimedian screw, pushing material towards heated section of extruder.

2. Heaters soften plastic, then force through die via rotating screw.

3. Exiting die, product is cooled (Water Jet).

4. Product cut to the required length.

Advantage Of Extrusion?

Generally low cost process (Requires simple dies)

Disadvantage Of Extrusion?

Can only produce continuous cross-sectional shapes

What is Calendaring?

Thermoplastic sheet (& film & Coating) manufacture generally PE & PVC to create sheet E.g. Shopping bags (LDPE) are calendared.

Describe the Calendaring Process?

1. Rollers heated (Softening point) of the thermoplastic.

2. Whilst rolling, plastic 'dough' forced through gap roller (Thickness determination).

3. 'Chill' roller cools material & embossing roller raises images in paper.

What is Line Bending (In Detail)?

- Processing sheet materials (thermoplastics), limited to simple shape production.

- Formation of straight, small curved bends.

- 'Strip heater' (electrical heater, tensioned resistance wire enclosed in a channel within a table) enables bending.

- Thermoplastic sheet clamped accurately for precision of heating.

- Accurate bends achieved using bending jigs, ensuring correct angle is consistently achieved.

What is Compression Molding?

A method of processing thermosetting polymers.

What is a Catalyst?

Increases rate of chemical reaction without itself changing. E.g. Hardeners & resins in GRP products.

Describe the Compression Molding Process?

1. Performed compressed powder (slug) placed between two mold halves.

2. Mold heated to temperature allowing material cross-link formations.

3. Mold closed onto preform & pressure used forces out excess material. Mold held closed under pressure at required temperature for time period sufficient enough to allow material 'cure' (All cross-links formed).

4. Mold opened, product ejected & process repeats.

Advantages of Compression Molding?

- Long production runs capable of producing moderately complez parts

- Although heavy machinery, low start-up costs, molds cheaper compared to Injection.

- Scarce waste material

Disadvantages of Compression Molding?

- Preform required

- Restricted to low complexity products

What is a Thermoplastic?

A tangle of long-chained molecules held together by strong 'Van der Waal' bonds. Ability to be reduced using heat (reshapable).

What is a Van Der Waal Bond?

Atomic bonding in thermoplastics (eletrostatic bond allowing reshaping of thermoplastics when heating).

What is a Thermoset Plastic?

Long-chained molecules (differing due to molecules held together by rigid cross-links, preventing reheating & reshaping).

What is an Elastomer Polymer?

Long-chained molecules (coils), when material distorted (Compressed or stretched molecules also distort, upon release returning to normal shape. The coiled molecules provide elastic properties.

What is a Rigid Cross-Link?

Cross-links are found in thermosetting plastics & elastomers (Rigid) compared to Van Der Waal bonds, not reactant to heat.

What are Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE), How are they Produced & How are they Beneficial?

- Processed using conventional equipment associated with thermoplastic polymers E.g. Injection & Blow molding.

- Reduced production cycle times (No waiting for molecular cross-link formation like thermosetting materials).

- All waste & scrap recyclable.

Applications of TPE's?

- Electrical components (Fiber Optics)

- Kitchen utensils & pens

- Industrial applications (Seals & hoses)

What are Fiber Optics?

A bundle of glass fibers with the ability of transmitting data using light signals (Thin & Flexible).

What is Liquid Silicon Rubber? Properties? Uses?

- Thermosetting elastomer made up of two opponents (One a catalyst).

- Two components (Liquid form) mixed together consistently before processing.

- Processing completed using a slightly modified version of injection molding machine.

- Has ability to maintain insulation & elastometric characteristics over wide temperature range (50-250deg).

- Uses of electrical connectors, baking trays, spatulas & oven gloves.

Types of Non-Polymer Thermoplastic Material?

- Clay (Wet state) for model making & ceramic sculptures.

- Paper for recycled paper (Once mixed with water adding fibers, reforming).

- Metals (Once separated from other materials, is reheatable using metal processes) for car manufacturing.

- Glass (Reheatable & Reshapable)

Types of Non-Polymer Thermosetting Material?

- Clay (High temparature) plant pots & tiling

- Concrete (Once reaction between constituent parts taken place & product dried out, no longer re-mixable/reshapable).

How to Identify a Injection Molded Plastic Product?

Complex 3D shape (Only producible with a molding technique) E.g. Computer mouse cover.

How to Identify a Blow Molded Plastic Product?

Hollow shapes (One end sealed, one open). Noticeable sprue signifies blow molding. Product 'neck' usually smaller than outside body.

How to Identify a Rotational Molded Plastic Product?

Hollow. No sprues. Seam line noticeable. Possible embossing prevalent.

How to Identify a Thermoformed Molded Plastic Product?

Sheet material. Sides thinner than base (Due to stretching). No sprue marks. Cutting marks noticeable from product removal. Contain detailed lettering.

What is a Sprue?

A vertical channel in mold through plastic or molten metal introduced or outflows.

Polymer Identification International symbol:

(1) PETE

Polyethene Terephtalate (Soft drinks bottles & water bottles)

Polymer Identification International symbol:

(2) HDPE

High Density Polyethylene (Shampoo & Yoghurt containers & Retail bags)

Polymer Identification International symbol:

(3) PVC

Polyvinyl Chloride (Pipes & Film)

Polymer Identification International symbol:

(4) LDPE

Low Density Polyethylene (Dry cleaning bags & Carrier bags)

Polymer Identification International symbol:

(5) PP

Polypropylene (Yoghurt & Margarine Containers)

Polymer Identification International symbol:

(6) PS

Polystyrene (Cups, Plates & Cutlery)

Polymer Identification International symbol:

(7) Other E.g. ABS

Reusable water bottles & Microwave trays

What is PICT PD?







What are Composite Materials?

Mixing together 2+ materials to enhance properties.

What are Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRP)?

Composites composed by mixing woven material (carbon fiber) with polymer resin & catalyst producing a strong, lightweight material.

What is Warping?

Deforming in timber (Uneven drying).

What are Fiber-Reinforced Composites (Most Important)?

Material composed of resins & fibers. E.g. Reinforcing rods added to mix of reinforced concrete.

What are Particle-Based Composites?

Consist solely of particles of two or more different materials E.g. Cement & concrete.

Types of composite Material?

1. Fiber-Reinforced Composites

2. Particle-Based Composites

3. Sheet-Based Composites

Advantages of Man-Made Boards?

- Increased stability against warping

- Equal strength in all directions (Compared to natural timbers)

Name the Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Composites?

- Good strength to weight ratio

- Resistant to corrosion

- Good fatigue resistance

- Possess low thermal expansion

What are the types of Fiber-Reinforced Composites?

- Natural woods

- Polymers mixed with fibers

- GRP (Glass Reinforced Plastic)

- Plastic laminates

- Carbon fibers

- Elastomers & concretes mixed with fibers

What are the types of Particle-Based Composites?

- Concretes

- Cements

- Tungsten & Titanium Carbide

- Filament-Reinforced Ceramics
- Tungsten Mesh & Ceramics

- Zirconia Reinforced with Titanium

- Tarmac

What are the types of Sheet-Based Composites (Man-Made Boards)?

- Plywoods

- Chipboards

- Blockboards

- Sterling Board


- Hexaboard

- Hardboard

- Maplex

- Metal/Polymer Sheet

What are the Uses of some of the Sheet-Based Composites?

- Plywood: Cabinets & Paneling

- Blockboard: Tabletops & Furniture

- Sterling Board: Shed & Workshop Flooring

- Chipboard: Knockdown Furniture & Worktops

- MDF: Furniture Sides (Base for Veneers)

- Hardboard: Drawer Bottoms & Cupboard Backs

How to Utilize (GRP) Glass Reinforced Plastic?

- Mold required (Produced cheaply from a range of materials E.g. Metal, woods & polymers).

- 'Laying Up' (laminating) involved in manufacturing with GRP.

- Inserts E.g. Mounting plates for securing fixtures can be included as material being 'laid up'.

Describe the Process of Utilizing GRP?

1. Coat mold with releasing agent.

2. Wear polythene gloves, apply gel-coat to mold with even brushing action to achieve thickness (1mm). Gel-coat is thixotropic (Will not run).

3. Cut up glass fiber Matt into minimum number of pieces that will cover mold in three laminations. Add colour to gel-coat & hardener to catalyze.

4. Once gel-coat cured (30 min) coat it with layer of catalysed lay-up polyester resin. Onto this lay the first lamination of glass fiber matt. Stipple the matt (stiff brush) until thoroughly wetted & all air gone. Repeat with successive layers. Use surfacing tissue as final lamination (Improved surface).

5. Leave (40min, clean equipment). Once done, edges are trimmed with sharp knife.

6. Wait (3 hours) before separating work from mold. Fully achieved after curing (in 24 hours) after which time it will be possible to work with wood & metal working tools.

What is a Matt?

Loosely woven fibers that make up the material once resins are added.

Describe Processing with Carbon Fiber?

1. CF's available in woven Matt form (Then cut to the shape of a pattern using Ceramic Scissors).

2. Material placed into mold half, where impregnated with resin & forced into mold shape.

3. Mold halves fixed together & everything placed in oven, where held at temperature of 170 Degrees for up to 8 hours to promote the rigid cross-links.

What are the Uses of Kevlar?

- Body Armour (Vests & helmets - Lightweight, durable, comfortable & flexible)

- Sport equipment (Helmets - Lightweight & strong)

- Gloves (Glass & Sheet-metal industries)

What is Kevlar?

A synthetic fiber of high tensile strength used especially as a reinforcing agent in the manufacture of tyres & other rubber products (Fibers woven into a cloth 'net' to absorb high impact projectiles Etc).

Name some of the Properties of Kevlar?

- High strength to weight ratio

- Low electrical conductivity

- High chemical resistance

- High toughness

- High cut resistance

- Flame resistant & Self-extinguishing

Name some Applications of Fiber-Reinforced Composites?

- GRP: Vehicle bodies

- Carbon Fiber: Sports equipment (Bicycle frame)

- Kevlar: Body Armour

- Plastic Laminates (Tufnols): Gears & Cams

- Plastic Laminates: Kitchen worktops

What is the Major Benefit of Reinforced Concrete?

Compared to normal, can withstand larger amounts of compressive forces & improved tension resistance, greatly reducing surface cracks (Due to pre-tensioned rebar).

What are some of the Properties of Particle-Based Composites?

- High strength in compression

- Decent stability

- Uniform structure ensuring consistent strength

- Generally free from surface defects

Describe Concrete In Detail?

Made from aggregates, sand & cement. Characteristics determined by ratio of constituent parts. Mixed thoroughly when dry, water added. Mixing continues until every aggregate & sand particle is coated in cement paste (bonding agent). Once, cast, hardening begins. During hardening, temperature rises due to chemical reactions.

What are some of the Advantages of Concrete?

- Moldable into complex shapes

- Properties similar to stone

- Components are readily extracted than stone

- Castable on site (situ), whereas stone quarried & cut to shape

- Withstand large compression forces

What is the Major Disadvantage of Concrete?

Poor under tension, making it necessary to reinforce the concrete when spanning large distances (Rebar).

What is a Cermet?

Mixture of metal & ceramic E.g. Tungsten Carbide + Metal Cobalt --> Extensive use for cutting tools.

What is Laminating?

Building up layers of material E.g. Plywood.

Why Use Aluminum?

Soft & lightweight. Usually alloyed with other metals to increase properties such as strength & ductility.

What are the Advantages of Cermets?

- Resistant to high temperatures

- Tough & Shock-resistant

What is the disadvantage of Cermets?

- Very few processes have the ability to utilize Cermets (Limited).

Give an Example of Sheet-Based Composites?

- ALU composite (Laminate of 0.3mm thickness alumnium sheet sandwiching a polyethylene core). Overall thickness of about 3mm, resulting in lightweight material with excellent rigidity & good impact resistance.

Give some Advantages of Sheet-Based Composites?

- Good sound & vibration damping qualities

- Good thermal insulation & strength

Give some Applications of Sheet-Based Composites?

- Automotive Industry (Vehicle skins)

- Partitions & Boats

Where have Traditional Materials been replaced by Composites?

Kitchen knives & flooring.

What are some of the Advantages of Tungsten Carbide on the Cutting Edge?

- More durable cutting edge

- A reduced necessity for re-sharpening

What are some of the Disadvantages of Tungsten Carbide on the Cutting Edge?

- Hardness of blade penetrable through ceramic glass, most metals & definitely woods.

What are some of the Advantages of Chipboard Flooring?

- Large areas coverable with individual sheet

- Cost reduced (Cheaper material in comparison to majority)

What is the Major Disadvantage of Chipboard Flooring?

- Must be covered in a flooring product E.g. Carpet (Not displayable).

What is an Alloy?

A mixture of 2+ metals with the aim of enhancing particular properties.

What is a Ferrous Metal?

Contains Iron (Ferrite) & Carbon.

What is a Non-Ferrous Metal?

Metals not containing Iron.

What are Ferrous Alloys?

A mixture of 2+ metals (At least one containing Iron & Carbon).

What are Non-Ferrous Alloys?

A mixture of 2+ metals (None containing Iron).

Give examples of Common Ferrous Metals?

Mild steel, Medium carbon steel, High carbon steel & Cast irons

Give examples of Common Non-Ferrous Metals?

Alumnium, Tin, Copper, Lead & Zinc

Give examples of common Ferrous Alloys?

Die (tool) steel, Stainless steel & High speed steel

Give examples of Common Non-Ferrous Alloys?

Brass, Bronze & Duralumin(s)

Name Metals & their Ore?

- Iron: Haematite

- Copper: Chalcopyrite

- Aluminium: Bauxite

- Lead: Galena

- Tin: Cassiterite

- Zinc: Zinc Blende

Describe the availability of Metal Ore?

- 25% of the Earth crust is metal ore.

- Aluminium is the most common ore, followed by Iron.

- Expensiveness dependent on rarity (However, E.g. Common ores like Al can be expensive to process).

Briefly Describe the Structure of Most Metals?


Describe Iron?

Converted from haematite by heating, slag (impurities) are removed, leaving molten iron at the blast furnace bottom. Iron rarely utilized without carbon combination (Greater strength - Steel production). Additionally, can be alloyed more to enhance particular properties.

Describe Steel?

Iron & carbon mixture (Carbon amount determining material strength). Alloying further allows specific property enhancement E.g. Strength, toughness & corrosion resistance.

Describe Carbon?

Element commonly found in majority of organic material (Coal & Diamond). Quantifying carbon within a material allows determination of hardness & strength.

Describe Pig Iron?

Insufficient quality for commercial use (Directly produced from the blast furnace).

Describe Copper?

Brownish metal (Alloyed with Zinc to produce Brass OR alloyed with Tin to produce Bronze).

Describe Bauxite?

Commonest crust ore (Producing Aluminium through electrolysis).

What are the different Types of Steel?

Low carbon steel (Mild), Medium carbon steel, High carbon steel & Cast iron

Describe Low Carbon Steel?

Carbon input of below 0.3%, fantastic ductility, horrible hardness, & fantastic toughness. Uses: Nuts & Bolts

Describe Medium Carbon Steel?

Carbon input of 0.3-0.6%, relatively decent ductility, relatively poor hardness & relatively decent toughness. Uses: Springs & Gardening tools

Describe High Carbon Steel?

Carbon input of 0.6-1.7%, relatively poor ductility, relatively decent hardness & relatively poor toughness. Uses: Chisels & Plane blades

Describe Cast Iron?

Carbon input of 3.5%, horrible ductility, fantastic hardness & horrible toughness (Brittle). Uses: Engines

Alumnium: Properties & Uses?

- Properties: Excellent electrical conductor

- Uses: Kitchenware (Saucepan)

Copper: Properties & Uses?

- Properties: Good ductility & high thermal & electrical conductivity

- Use: Domestic pipework & electrical contacts

Gold: Properties & Uses?

- Properties: Malleable & ductile & heavy

- Uses: Jewelry & electronics

Lead: Properties & Uses?

- Properties: Corrosion resistant

- Uses: Adjoining brickwork

Platinum: Properties & Uses?

- Properties: Malleable & ductile & heavy

- Uses: Jewelry & Wire (Thermocouple cabling)

Silver: Properties & Uses?

- Properties: Highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity & reflectivity of every metal

- Uses: Expensive cutlery & Decorative items

Tin: Properties & Uses?

- Properties: Corrosion resistant (Oxidized layer)

- Uses: Food wrapping foil & Steel plate coating

Titanium: Properties & Uses?

- Properties: Good strength/weight ratio & very clean

- Uses: Surgical applications (Hip replacement)

Zinc: Properties & Uses?

- Properties: Decent electrical conductor

- Uses: Coating (galvanizing) for buckets & electrical unit casing

Duralumin: Base metal, Composition & Uses?

- Base metal: Aluminium

- Composition: 4%Cu, 1%Mn & 0.1%Mg

- Uses: Structural aircraft components

Brass: Base metal, Composition & Uses?

- Base metal: Copper

- Composition: 35% Zinc

- Uses: Ornaments

Bronze: Base metal, Composition & Uses?

- Base metal: Copper

- Composition: 10% Tin

- Uses: Statues & Coins

Nitonol: Base metal, Composition & Uses?

- Base metal: Nickel

- Composition: Nickel & Titanium

- Uses: Smart metal alloys for springs & muscle wire

Name some of the Benefits of Alloying?

- Changing Melting point

- Changing colour

- Increasing strength, hardness & ductility

- Enhancing corrosion & oxidation resistance

- Changing electrical/thermal properties

- Improving flow properties (Producing better castings)

What is Oxidation?

Oxide layer formation on surface due to material contact with Oxygen. Majority of materials utilize for production of further oxidation, whereas steels continue to oxidize (Due to porousness).

Stainless Steel: Alloyed with, Properties & Uses?

- Alloyed with: Chromium, nickel & magnesium

- Properties: Tough & wear/corrosion resistant

- Uses: Cutlery

High Speed Steel: Alloyed with, Properties & Uses?

- Alloyed with: Tungsten, chromium & vanadium

- Properties: Very hard

- Uses: Cutting tools (Drill)

Tool & Die Steels: Alloyed with, Properties & Uses?

- Alloyed with: Chromium & Manganese

- Properties: Very hard & tough & excellent wear-resistance

- Uses: Fine press tools & extruder dies

High Tensile Steels: Alloyed with, Properties & Uses?

- Alloyed with: Nickel

- Properties: Good tensile strength, toughness & corrosion resistance

- Uses: Car engine components

Describe Work Hardening?

The effects of processing (Boiling, bending & hammering whilst cold). Whilst cold, the metal's crystal structure distorts creating internal stresses responsible for making materials harden (Strength boost).

Describe Planishing?

Finishing by hammering or rolling to produce a smooth surface.

Describe Normalising?

Heat treatments (Steels) to obtain smaller, more regularly sized crystals, therefore strengthening & toughening the material.

Describe Annealing?

Heating 'work hardening' metal. Soaking metal at suitable annealing temperature, allowing crystal reshaping, relieving internal stresses that cause work hardening (boosting ductility & softness).

Describe Annealed Glass?

Glass cooled slowly in a 'Lehr' to reduce Internal stresses.

Describe Hardening?

Heating metal (Steel usually) to cherry red, followed by rapid cooling (Quenching). Process usually followed by tempering, removing any brittleness.

Describe Tempering?

(After hardening) removing brittleness presence in material producing natural shine of material. Heat then applied & when correct tempering colour seen the material is then quenched.

Describe Tempered Glass?

Toughened Glass.

Describe the Tempering Colour?

Indication of suitable temparature to remove brittleness (Colour of steel).

What is Quenching?

Rapid cooling of a metal following heat treatment.

Describe Case Hardening?

Increasing the hardness of steels (mild) with insufficient carbon content to affect internal hardening.

Describe Carburising?

The component to be case hardened is placed in a ceramic box packed with carbon-rich material & heated for predetermined length of time to produce required carbon layer thickness.

What are the Advantages of Case Hardening?

- Tough inner core produced (wear-resistance) for gears & car camshafts.

- Steel has insufficient carbon for heat treating in same way as steels with high carbon contents can be given a hardened surface.

The Disadvantage of Case Hardening?

- Grain growth occurs, requiring a machining process (E.g. Surface grinding) to reproduce required size.

What is Nitriding?

Immersing product in hardening medium (nitrogen) for a specified time whilst being heated (500Degs).

What are the Advantages of Nitriding?

- No additional hardening necessary

- Removes chances of surface cracking

- Increases corrosion resistance

- Clean process

- Economical for large numbers

What are the Disadvantages of Nitriding?

- Initial set-up costs high

- Overheating produces permanent loss of hardness (irreversible)

Describe Flame & Induction Hardening (Mechanised)?

Rely on carbon content of 0.4% or more & involve heating surface only, followed by quenching by a water jet.

What are the Advantages of Flame & Induction Hardening?

- Localized areas of product can be hardened (Leaving unaffected areas where toughness required).

- Grain growth prevented (additional machining not required).

Processing Metals (Redistribution): Forming Processes?

- Press forming

- Embossing & coining

Processing Metals (Redistribution): Forging Processes?

- Hot pressing

- Cold & hot forging

- Drop forging

Processing Metals (Redistribution): Casting Processes?

- Sand casting

- Die casting

- Gravity die casting

- High pressure die casting

- Low pressure die casting

What is Sintering?

The process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat and/or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.

Types of Wasting Processing?

- Blanking & piercing

- Sawing & filling

- Grinding & sanding

- Drilling & milling

Types of Addition Processes?

- Bolts & screws

- Adhesives

- Welding, brazing & soldering

Describe Blanking & Piercing?

Shearing processes in which a punch & dies are used to modify webs. The tooling & processes are the same between the two, only the terminology is different: In blanking the punched out piece is used & called a blank; in piercing the punched out piece is scrap. Soft drinks cans produced through blanking & casings for desktop computers by piercing & blanking. Process utilizes maximum efficiency with minimal waste.

What is Welding?

A fabrication technique where heat is essentially fusing components together (Metals & some polymers).

Describe Finishing?

Removal of burrs & blemishes in material after processing.

Describe Profile Cutting?

Utilizing oxy-acetylene torches (Shipbuilding industry) prior to welding on cutting large thick steel sheets to shape.

What is Plasma Cutting?

An electric arc (Huge heat & compressed air or Argon) used to blast through material. Little waste, yet fine cut achieved with material finishing required to remove burrs E.g. Diggers & Eartmovers.

What is Computer Numerical Control (CNC)?

Special machine programming language controlling machines such as lathes, drills, punches, laser cutters etc. Commonly generated from CAD drawings.

Describe Laser Cutting in Detail?

- Automated utilizing CNC enabling consistent quality.

- Produces much finer detail (Depending on laser speed).

- In comparison to plasma cutting, cut width narrower, preventing more waste.

- Applicable to broader range of materials compared to plasma cutting.

- Utilized for engraving.

- Energy emissions variable by controlling power output.

- Plasma cutting restricted to metals due to electrical conductive properties.

What is Redistribution?

Shaping of the material either cold, heated or as molten material.

Examples of Processes Associated with Redistribution?

- Press forming

- Forging

- Casting

- Molding

Describe Press Forming?

A process heavily relying on ductility of material being pressed (Annealing beneficial to increase ductility). Utilized punch & die from toughened die-steel (Impact & wear resistance). Complex shapes requires generation of high stressed to overcome material resistance to pressing.

What are the Advantages of Pressing Sheet into 3D Shape & Press Forming Generally?

- Increased stiffness.

- Reducing amount of material required to craft vehicle.

- Utilizing sheet material provides better 3D shape from more effective shaping.

- Folding material provides greater stiffness & rigidity.

- Stretched material has good ductility & hardness (Structural strength increases).

Name examples of Products made from Press-Formed Sheet Materials?

Cooking tops & Domestic radiator panels

What is Embossing?

Embossing & Debossing are processes of creating raised or recessed relief images in proper & other materials. Decorative/intricate feature converted from sheet to 3D shape. E.g. Greeting cards & Jewelry.

What is Deep Drawing?

A sheet metal forming process: The sheet metal blank is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of a punch. Thus a shape transformation process with material retention. When the depth of the drawn part exceeds its diameter, deep drawing has occurred. E.g. Soft cans.

What is Sand Casting?

Utilizing sand (Prepared to contain oils to enhance sand bonding) for molds whilst hot metal is cast.

What are the Advantages of Sand Casting?

- Complex 3D shapes producible

- Cores utilized for hollow sections

- Appropriate for small production runs

- Automated processes suitable for longer runs

What are the Disadvantages of Sand Casting?

- Machining necessary (Poor surface finish)

- Inaccurate (Compared to die or investment casting)

- Low output rate (Only small runs suitable)

What are the Typical Products from Sand Casting?

- Pump Impeller (Ability to withstand large temperature & not requiring decent finish)

- Gears & Pulleys (Heavy duty)

Describe the Process Stages of Sand Casting?

1. 'Pattern' made from wood (e.g. Jelutong); metals (e.g. Aluminium); polymers (e.g. Polystyrene) & have ability to be split for more complex shapes.

2. Pattern halves placed on baseboard. A mold box half is placed over them.

3. Green sand crammed around pattern, compressing into contact with pattern. Backing sand follows (Usually recycled sand).

4. Pattern removed from mold half, Runner & riser gates then are cut into the top half of the sand mold.

5. Mold halves fitted together with locating pins (Correct alignment).

6.Molten metal poured into running gate. Riser used to indicate a full mold. De-gassing tablets necessary to reduce risk of porous casting.

7. Once solidified, sand mold broken open, leaving product with runner & riser gates attached (later removed by band saw etc. material dependent).

What is Die Casting?

Forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity. A permanent mold process, casting low MP casting metals (Al, Zn, Mg) into alloy steel dies (Enabling large production scale). The more force applied, the quicker the process & the finer the detail produced.

What is Gravity Die Casting?

Solely utilizing the force of gravity, poured molten metal has the ability to reach all parts of the mold completely. Gas rings keep mold heated. Fluxes prevent oxidation of the metal as it is being cast.

Describe the Hot Chamber High Pressure Die Casting Process?

1. Molten metal poured into a cylinder (Ladle or crucible).

2. Hydraulic ram forces into closed dies.

3. Dies water cooled (Rapidly cooling product).

4. Dies open, ejector pins push out of die.

What are the Typical Products from Hot Chamber High Pressure Die Casting?

Small, highly detailed components (Lock mechanisms for uPVC sliding doors).

What is the difference between Hot Chamber & Cold Chamber Die Casting?

Materials used: (Cold) Alloys - Al, Brass & Cu

(Hot) Alloys - Zn, Cu, Mg & Pb

Temparature: (Cold) Materials with high MP's

(Hot) Materials with low MP's

Chamber: (Cold) Cylindrical sleeve

(Hot) Gooseneck

Closing System: (Cold) Hydraulically Operated Plunger

(Hot) Plunger

Process: (Cold) Cyclical

(Hot) Ongoing

What are the Advantages of Die Casting?

- Smoother, better finish in comparison to sand casting.

- Accuracy improved utilizing die casting.

- Quality of material improved due to effects on the material structure of rapid cooling.

- Suitable for large-scale production, necessary to cover cost of dies & profit.

- Lower energy costs due to low MP alloys.

What is Multi-Slide Die Casting?

Rapid manufacture of small zinc & magnesium components. E.g. Door locks

What is Investment Casting?

Production of casting materials with high MP (Old process). A technique for making small, accurate castings in refractory alloys using a mold formed around a pattern of wax or similar material which is then removed by melting.Translate investment casting to

Describe the Investment Casting Process?

1. Accurate wax pattern produced.

2. Pattern coated in high temparature ceramic material, dipping pattern into ceramic slip. Once sufficient thickness of ceramic material achieved, left to dry.

3. Once dry, fired in Kiln, causing pattern to melt, leaving cavity to be cast into.

4. Once ceramic mold cooled, molten metal poured in (Using gravity).

5. Once cast cooled, ceramic mold is broken open, leaving only the cast product.

Name some Typical Products from Investment Casting?

- Turbine blades for jet engines (Less susceptible to heat energy).

- Motorcycle steering head components

- Valves & controls for food industry

What are some of the Advantages of Investment Casting?

- Good finishes with decent accuracy.

- Complicated shapes producible (also in materials that cannot be machined).

- No split line showing on product.

What are some of the Disadvantages of Investment Casting?

- Very high costs

- Size of components limited by weight

Describe the Process of Sintering?

- Relies on crushing material into powder.

- Powder compacted into die (Giving final product shape).

- Compacted shape heated to promote particle bonding in material.

Name some Typical Products From Sintering?

- Cutting tool tips

- Hard magnetic products made from Cobalt

What is the Advantage of Sintering?

- Appropriate process for materials that are difficult to process in any other way.

Outline some of the Key information associated with Forging?

- Completed manually or industrially

- Completed whilst metal hot (avoiding work hardening & requires less energy to achieve desired result).

- Manually completed utilizing hammers, swages & anvils.

- Forging processes include: bending, drawing down, punching & drifting, twisting & scrolling & drop forging.

Outline some of the Key information associated with Bending?

- Either sharp or gradual.

- Gradual bend achieved with the material cold & sharp bend requiring hot metal.

Outline some of the Key information associated with Drawing Down?

- Reducing thickness of material, but unlike the drawing process, which stretches the material by putting it under tension, the metal is hammered into a thinner section.

- Resulting in increased length of worked piece.

Outline some of the Key information associated with Punching & Drifting?

- Hammering a spiked tool into piece being worked (Any shape possible).

- Drift tidies hole produced

Outline some of the Key information associated with Twisting & Scrolling?

- Completed with metal hot or cold, result dependent on forged metal.

- Require highly skilled manual labor.

- Products: Wrought iron gates & horseshoes

What is Drop Forging?

A refining process of heating & hammering into cast die to produce final product. E.g. (Strong & durable) Cam shafts & gears.

Describe the Process of Drop Forging?

- Work piece placed into a die & punch.

- Impact of ram on punch causes heated material to change shape.

What are the Types Of Wood & Examples?

Hardwood (Oak, Ash, Walnut, Mahogany & Elm): Slow growing deciduous timbers.

Softwood (Douglas Fur, Scots Pine & Spruce): Fast growing evergreen timbers.

Describe the General Structure of Wood?

- ALL fibrous with the fibers growing along the trunk length.

- Fibers contain tracheids, cellulose supported by Lignin resin.

- 55% cellulose, 28% lignin resins holding all together & remainder of carbohydrates (sugars).

- Natural composites.

What are Tracheids?

Cells of Wood.

What is Grain (Woods)?

The visual effect of the flow of tracheids.

What is Lignin?

The natural resins that hold the cells together in timbers.

Describe the General Strength in Wood?

- Greatest in direction of fibers.

- Better ability to support greater load when length of timber was under tension along grain rather than across (Preventing timber splitting).

What are Knots?

Natural defects found in timber - the start of branches from the trunk (Branches growing out of tree trunk). They weaken structure & create irregular grain.

Describe the Conversion of Woods?

Sawing up logs to provide usable wood forms (E.g. Slab & Quarter). Can enhance grain & Stability effectively.

What is the Benefit of Quarter sawing over Slab sawing?

Quarter sawing can prevent warping & can enhance the grain whereas Slab sawing is more prone to warping.

Describe Shrinkage in Wood?

All timbers shrink due to moisture lost in seasoning.

Describe Twisting in Wood?

A form of warping that is due to a combination of a method of conversion (Sawing the trunk of the tree) & uneven seasoning.

Describe Dry & Wet rotting (Insect attack) In Wood?

- Dry rot reduces wood to dry, powdery consistency, resulting in minimal strength.

- Wet rot occurent in damp & dry conditions. This alternating cycle breaks down material through decomposition.

What is Rot in Wood?

Breaking down of Lignin resins in woods that holds the Tracheids together.

Why are Deathwatch Beetles & Woodworms Problematic?

They are responsible for the destruction of Hardwoods & Softwoods E.g. Oak-frame building by Deathwatch.

Describe the Seasoning of Woods?

- A controlled drying of timber (Over time).

- Process: Kiln Drying - A form of seasoning that uses steam in a controlled way to reduce the content of moisture in timber.

- The ideal moisture content of the timber (EMC) is the same as that of its surroundings.

What are the Benefits of Seasoning?

- Increases strength & Stability of timber.

- Timber less prone to rot & decay.

- The reduced moisture content reduces the risk of the timber causing corrosion to the surrounding metalwork.

Describe what Veneers are & How they are Utilized?

- A thin section sheet of timber (Usually hardwood) that is glued to a cheaper base material E.g. Chipboard

- Used in sheet form to provide decorative surface to inferior quality woods.

What are Paper Backed Veneers?

Very thin, typically 0.8mm, natural wood veneers supported by paper backing. Allows wood to bend, flex & curve without cracking or breaking.

What are Suitable Veneers & Base materials?

Veneer - Beech, Oak & Ash Etc.

Base Material - MDF, Chipboard & Plywood Etc.

What is a Laminate?

A material that has been placed in layers with the same or other materials E.g. Kitchen work surfaces & Flooring (Layers of Paper & Melamine resin).

Describe Steam Bending?

Strips of wood are steam heated using a steam box. The applied heat & moisture makes the wood pliable (Flexible) enough to bend easily around a mold to create a specific shape.

What are the Advantages of Laminating?

- More cost-effective than buying hardwood, yet very authentic.

- More durable & stain resistant.

- More versatile.

- Increased stability.

What are a Couple of Laminated Wood Products?

CD racks & Furniture.

Describe the Wood-Based Composites?

- Plywood (Layers of veneers & resins)

- Blockboard (Strips of wood bonded together with a veneered surface)

- Chipboard (Fine chips of woods mixed with resins)

- Hardboard (As MDF - Can be impregnated with oil)

- MDF (Very fine wood fibers mixed with resins)

- Sterling Board (Shavings of wood compressed into resins)

Describe the Process of Manufacturing with Glass?

- Lime soda glass is made from a mixture of sand, lime & sodium carbonate that is heated to 1500 degrees in a large furnace.

- Molten material tapped off to form a continuous flow that can be 'floated' on a bank of molten tin to form plate glass.

- Plate glass annealed to reduce any developed stresses in material.

- Material cut to required size using diamond wheel cutters.

What are the Uses of Lime-Soda Glass?

Window panes, Storage jars & Bottles

What is Plate Glass?

A high quality glass of few impurities that has been rolled & polished. Uses include mirrors & large windows.

What is Cullet?

Crushed glass particles ready for remelting & recycling.

Describe Glass Blowing?

The craft of making hollow, expensive glassware by blowing air into semi-molten glass through a long tube.

What is Slumping?

Where glass is heated until it become sufficiently soft, allowing it to take the shape of a mold. Product example is special curved glass for windows (Or car windscreens).

What are the General Properties of Glass?

- Poor electrical conductor (Electrical insulator)

- Poor thermal conductor

- Extremely brittle (Therefore fragile & terrible impact resistance).

- Ability to refract light (Entering & leaving) glass.

- Smooth & non-porous surface (Decent chemical resistance).

What is Annealing?

A process of slowly cooking hot glass to relieve internal stresses after it was formed. The process may be carried out in a temperature-controlled kiln known as the Lehr. (Removing the stresses effectively reduces the risk of material cracking).

What is a Lehr?

A furnace in which hot glass (About 500degrees) is placed after working, enabling it to be brought down to room temperature extremely slowly.

Describe Toughened Glass?

- Uniformly heated glass which is rapidly cooled by air jets. The process effectively causes the exterior surfaces to be under compression stress, whilst the interior is under tension. Therefore, external forces must overcome the stresses to shatter/break the glass.

- After toughening, no further processing is applicable, due to cutting & damage to the exterior surface leading to shattering.

- Commonly utilized for Balcony railing & Glass doors.

Describe Colored Glass?

- Utilizing metal oxides (Commonly copper, lead & iron)

- Colored 'Cullet' (Granulized/crushed glass material) Utilized to create patterns in designers/artists.

- Usually portrayed through stained glass windows (Church windows) & various types of bottles.

Describe Lead Glass?

When lead oxide is added to glass, it improves clarity & the ability to reflect light. Products include optical products such as prisms & lenses. Expensive crystal tableware is made with this material.

What is Pyrex?

A well known heat-resistant glass containing Boron. This is like a brand name or manufacturers name. It is made from boron-silicate glass.

Describe Boro-silicate glass?

Glass containing boron & used generally for kitchenware & laboratory equipment, due to its heat resistance & good resistance to chemicals.

Describe Laminated Glass?

A very tough composite material made up of two thin sheets of plate glass. Between them is a polymer sheet that when the glass breaks holds the shards & fragments together. This means that Laminated Glass is suitable for security properties.

What is the Major Benefit of Double-Glazed Windows?

Essentially traps heat within the building more effectively, preventing heat from escaping, keeping the area warm a lot better.

Describe Self-Cleaning Glass?

Virtually invisible coating applied to the outer surface of the glass. This coating stops droplets from collecting on the surface by forcing them to spread out into a sheet that reduces spot marks. Also, it also interacts with UV light to break down organic dirt, finger marks & pollen, into simpler compounds that can be washed away by rain.

Why have Polymers begun to replace Glass in some Areas?

Due to more developed & improved technology of polymers, such as PET, have replaced the use of glass by having the ability to withstand high temperatures or becoming chemical resistant. E.g. Oven Dishes & Jars

What are some of the Advantages of Polymers over Glass?

- Lightweight (Transportation)

- Low melting point (recycling)

- Impervious to gases (Carbonated drink storage)

- Ability to be squashed without breaking

- Can utilize screw tops

What are some of the Advantages of Glass over Polymers?

- More rigidity

- Improved scratch resistance

- Greater clarity where transparency required

- Not affected by heat

- Usable where heat resistance required

- Gives sense of quality (Weight & texture)

What are some of the Disadvantages of Polymers over Glass?

- Heavier (Transportation & Costs)

- High melting point (More energy required for recycling)

What are Ceramics Commonly Used for?

- Commonly ornamental & decorative products

- Majority clay based materials (range of clays with different additives), providing varying finishes.

Describe Fine Bone China?

Highest quality, a form of clay, containing ground animal bone & has translucent quality.

Common Ceramic Substances & their Uses?

- Alumina: Cutting tools & Crucibles

- Berylia: Nuclear Reactor Crucibles

- Manesia: Furnace Linings

- Zirconia: High temperature furnace all insulation & rocket liners

What are the Useful Features of Engineering Ceramics?

- Ability to withstand high temperatures without distortion.

- Strength & rigidity at high temperatures.

- Freedom from 'creep' (essentially grain growth that increases product size).

Briefly Describe Slip Casting?

Pouring 'Slip' into Plaster of Paris mold.

What is a Slip?

Liquid clay.

What is Jiggering?

Traditional techniques for producing flatware E.g. Plates & Saucers.

What are the Advantages of Cartridge Paper?

- Good surface for sketching

- Variety of qualities (Heavier= More versatility)

What are the main textures in Water Color Papers?

1. Hot-pressed papers have a hard, smooth surface.

2. Cold-pressed papers have rougher surface (enhancing finished image by allowing more color absorption).

3. Third type rougher than cold-pressed paper (more peaks & hollows on surface).

What is Bleed Proof Paper?

Protective layer applied to the reverse of the sheet prevents marker ink from 'bleeding' through.

Where is Layout Paper Utilized?

Advertising (Partially translucent).

What is Ingress Paper?

A laid finish paper of light to medium weight (Drawing paper).

What are some Types of Optical Properties of Paper?


- Gloss (Surface luster), glare (Reflecting light), Finish (General surface characteristics) & smoothness (Absence of surface irregularities)

Describe the Strength & Durability of Paper?

- Strength of individual fibers, average fiber length, strength of fiber bonds & paper structure.

- Tensile strength

- Bending strength (Thinner the sheet = Increased flexibility & lightness).

- Porosity (Reduced with addition of paper size or greaseproof).

Describe Manufacturing with Paper & Boards?

- Widely utilzed for manufacturing products e.g. Packaging & modelling.

- Can incorporate variety of finishing e.g. Pearlescent & holographic.

- Can include metal effects e.g. Galvanized & Anodized.

Describe Carton Board?

- Single layer card (Cereal boxes): Multi-layered corrugated cardboard (Shoe boxes).

- Produced from recycled carton board, paper & some new wood fibers.

- Packaging consists of folded & glued shapes (Strength & rigidity).

Describe Foam Board?

- Multi layer board made up of two outer layers of card.

- Outer surfaces have a high gloss finish & foam middle layer.

- Lightweight, easily cut & difficult to bend.

- Uses: Mood & Presentation boards.

Describe Correx Board?

- Produced by extruding a thermoplastic to produce a sheet material (Simple products).

- Lightweight & durable & easily bent in one direction.

What is Copyright?

The legal right of ownership of copy or artwork that cannot be copied for use without the owners permission.

What are the Types of Printing Processes?

- Relief printing (Letterpress & Flexography)

- Gravure

- Screen Printing

- Lithography (Offset)

- Electrostatic printing processes (Electrophotographic, Inkjet, microcapsule & Thermal Subliminal & wax transfer).

What are the Process Colors?

Cyan, Yellow, Magneta & Black (CYMK) the four colors combined in a print process to make full-colored images.

What is Pantone Color?

A specific color recognised by a code & generally used as a spot color.

Describe the Letterpress?

The use of raised letters onto which a coating of ink is deposited, web-fed. E.g. Personalized wedding invitations.

Describe Offset Lithography?

Versatile & economic commercial printing process using CYMK & fifth (spot color or a varnish). E.g. Commercial Newspaper printing.

Describe the Process of Offset Lithography?

1. Printing materials fed into machine as sheet or web-fed.

2. Printing plates are produced from photosensitive aluminum, the image being etched onto the plate using laters. Plates then fitted, test run ensues ensuring registration marks line up & color density correct.

3. Plate welted with a damping roller, while the grease-based inks will only go into those regions where required. Plate cylinder rotates onto blanket roller (Coated in ink).

Describe Flexography?

Relief printing process, similar to letterpress, however raised images etched onto rubber material that is glued onto steel rollers.

- Viscous inks used in lithography, thin inks in flexography (Allowing poor quality materials to be printed on).

- Expensive set up with cheap materials.

Describe Screen Printing?

A versatile manually operated or fully automatic (Production scale) relying on forcing ink through mesh onto material being printed.

What are the Uses of Screen Printing?

- Transfer of designs onto papers, fabrics & ceramic products (Tiles).

- Printed onto advertising boards & cartons.

What are the Advantages of Screen Printing?

- Can print thick deposits of ink on uneven surfaces.

- Non impact printing method (Wear reduced).

Describe the Gravure Printing Process?

- Can produced range of high volume materials E.g. Stamps.

- Process of engraving stainless steel cylinder with thousands of tiny holes of varying depths (For tonal variation). Holes in rotating cylinder collect ink & then wiped clean with 'doctor blade', leaving ink only in image area (Expensive).

What are the Advantages of Gravure?

- High quality print produced

- High speed printing

Describe Digital Printing?

Printing presses can be linked directly to computers to remove the need to make printing plates.

Describe Electrophotographic Printing?

Depositing of toner onto substrate.

Describe Inkjet Printing?

Spraying electrostatically charged ink drops onto substrate directly.

Advantages of Electrostatic Printing Processes?

- Economical for short print runs.

- Ideal for 'on demand' printing.

Describe Thermal Transfer Printing?

Material applied to paper by melting a coating or ribbon so that it stays glued to material on which print is applied.

Describe Dye Sublimation Printing?

Dyes changed from solid to gas through immense heating & converted back again, allowing dyed to settle & stick to material surface. De

Describe Die Cutting, Creasing & Folding?

Die effectively shears webs of paper/card & machines fold & crease (Giving great flexibility).

What are Smart Materials?

Materials physical properties change in response to an input.

What are Modern Materials?

Materials available in present form since 1960's (do not react to environment).

Describe Thermochromic Pigments?

Changes color in response to temperature (E.g. Baby bottles temperature indication).

What are Liquid Crystals?

Carbon based crystals that can have their orientation changed when an electric current is passed through them (Used in thermocolor film).

Examples Of thermocratic Products?

Thermometers & Batteries

Describe Phosphorescent Pigments?

Ceramic powders that have the avility to absorb light & then release light energy over long time period. Can be mixed with acrylic paints for creating illuminated signs E.g. Warning signs & exit signs.

What are Shape Memory Alloys?

Metal alloys that are specifically developed to 'remember' their original shape under specific conditions (E.g. 'Memoflex' glass).

What are Piezoelectric Devices?

Devices that either generate electricity when coaded, or change shape/size with a useful force when connected to an electronic circuit.

- Sensors (Burglar alarm systems)

- Actuators (Fast-acting valves)

What is Smart Grease?

A viscous material used for applications where controlled release of energy is important. E.g. Pen click mechanisms & Glove compartments.

Describe Smart Fluids?

Have a rheological effect on components (Deformation & flows of matter. Greases & fluids react to movement between adjacent components).

Describe Electroluminscent Wires?

- Central conductor & phosphur coated outer conductors.

- Inner conductor coated in semi-conductor material (Conducts electricity only under certain circumstances E.g. Temperature).

- E.g. Glowsticks

Describe Smart textiles?

Thermochromic & photochromic dyes can be incorporated to change color (E.g. Levels of UV radiation, photochromic).

What are Quantum tunneling composites (QTC)?

Metal filled polymers with ability to change from insulator to conductor when deformed by some deliberate force or pressure. E.g. Touch-sensitive fabrics (IPhone touchscreen).

Describe Electronic Smart Glass?

Change from transparent to dark when voltage applied.

- Liquid crystal glass (Carbon-based compounds move in response to small voltage).

- Electrochrmoic smart glass.

- Suspended particle device (SPD)

What are Fiber Optics?

Thin, flexible fibers of glass or other transparent solids to transmit light signals E.g. Telecommunications.

Advantages of Fiber Optics Over Copper Cable?

- Greater bandwidth

- Better Speed & Distance

- Less costly to maintain (Durable)

Describe Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)?

Carbon based compounds (technology) that has a reflective display (Notebooks & calculators) allowing less energy consumption in comparison to LED's.

What is Kevlar?

A synthetic fiber of high tensile strength & versatility, used especially as a reinforcing agent in the manufacture of tyres & body Armour.

- Nomex (Variant) can provide further heat protection.

- Also flexible with exceptional strength to weight ratio.

What is Carbon Fiber?

Polymer reinforced by graphite textile, with fibers commonly impregnated with a resin (Epoxy etc.) bonding fibers together.E.g. Formula One cars & Sports Helmets

What are the Properties of Carbon Fiber?

- High tensile strength

- High chemical resistance

- Lightweight

- High temperature tolerance

- Low thermal expansion

- High chemical resistance

Describe Precious Metal Clays?

Consists of microscopic particles of pure silver or fine gold powder & a water-soluble, non-toxic, organic binder which burns off during firing. E.g. Bespoke Jewelry.

How are Coated Metals Beneficial?

Provide protection & decoration, applied to sheet materials E.g. Polymers (PET) coated mild steels & aluminum (Packaging).

Describe Metal Foams?

Increases impact resistance enabling metals such as aluminum to be better protected E.g. Polystyrene.

What are the Properties & Uses of Titanium?

High strength to weight ratio, tough with good corrosion resistance & commonly used in aerospace & medical industries.

Describe a Polymorph?

Low melting point (60degrees) polymer with the ability to take various forms E.g. Prototyping.

What are Microfibers?

Very fine polymer-based fibers, usually made from polyamide or polyester, that are designed to mimic nature microstructures, have decent fineness E.g. Fashion fabrics.

Describe Micro-encapsulation?

Chemicals held in tiny capsules attached to the fibers E.g. Bed sheets impregnated with natural remedies for insomniacs.

What are Phase Change Materials (PCM's)?

Subsatnces that absorb & release thermal energy (Temperature control) incorporated in clothing & sleeping equipment (extreme).

What is Dichroic Glass?

Glass coated with very thin layers of metal oxides & quartz crystal. Light both transmitted & reflected by the glass E.g. Space craft windows.

What are Man-Made Boards?

Flexible sheet materials E.g. MDF, Plywood & Aeroply.

Describe Flexible MDF?

Grooves throughout material allow slight bending (Rigid material).

Describe Flexible Plywood?

Two outer layers are of an open grained timber & thicker than inner core, allowing bending effectively. E.g. Furniture manufacture.

Describe Aeroply?

Lightweight & strong thin, high quality, Plywood section E.g. Wooden Jewelry (Decoration).

Describe Maplex?

A modern man-made board produced from wood fibers. The structure is not bonded using adhesives, instead it used very high compression forces to form the material E.g. Furniture & Interior fittings.

Describe Hexaboard?

An exterior quality birch plywood with a hard phenolic resin laminated surface (Hard & Durable) E.g. Flooring for commercial vehicles & aircraft.

What is Plasticity (Mechanical)?

The ability of a material to be permanently changed in shape by external forces acting upon the material E.g. Hammer Blows & Pressure Etc.

What is Ductility (Mechanical)?

Ductility is a solid material's ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire.Copper is an excellent example.

What is Toughness (Mechanical)?

Is when a material is able to undergo pressure from a sudden impact or absorb the energy and not fracture or withstand from bending. An example of a material that has this property is Copper.

What is Hardness (Mechanical)?

Resistance of a material to deformation, indentation, or penetration by means such as abrasion, drilling, impact, scratching, and/or wear. This is important for cutting tools, e.g. drills.

What is Durability (Mechanical)?

A materials ability to withstand wear, pressure, corrosion and weather, changing its appearance.

What is Stability (Mechanical)?

Ability of a substance to remain unchanged over time under stated or reasonably expected conditions of storage and use. Usually the conditions that may cause instability are humidity, shock, or temperature.

What is Strength (Mechanical)?

When a material can take on a huge stress before it breaks. The capacity of an object or substance to withstand great force or pressure.

What is Tensile Strength?

The ability of a material to not break or snap when force or pressure is exerted upon it.

What is Compressive Strength?

The ability of a material to withstand pushing forces which attempt to crush or shorten the material.

What is Bending Strength?

The ability of a material not to bend when pressure or force is applied to it.

What is Shear Strength?

The ability of a material to resist sliding forces acting against each other.

What is Torsional Strength?

An ability a material can have when it is able to prevent from twisting when under the forces of torsion or torque.