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48 Cards in this Set

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Thank you

Many thanks to another contributor - 'Kattyne' for the production of these slides.

I have made some adjustments and amendments since downloading


Safeguarding the world for ourselves and for future generations by using energy and other resources in a way that minimises their depletion and designing for a better quality of life
life cycle assessment
Life cycle assessment
technique widely used to asses and evaluate the impact of the product or packaging from cradle to grave through extraction, and processing of raw materials, the production phase and life cycle processes including distribution use and final disposal
BSI and the ISO 14000 now demand
continuous improvement in a company's environmental performance
Life-cycle inventory
Describes which raw materials are used and what emissions will occur during the life of a product
Environmental inputs and outputs
of raw materials and energy resources
Economic inputs and outputs
of products, components, or energy that are outputs from other processes
A designer now needs to make sure that there product is

easy to dismantle for repair or re-use, easy to seperate different materials for recycling, easy to remove components that need to be treated seperately for repair, use as few materials as possible, mark the materials/polymers in order to sort them correctly, avoid surface treatments

Cyclic sustainability
products made from biodegradable organic materials or from minerals that are continuously recycled, decreasing the levels of waste and pollution
Solar sustainability
Products in manufacture and use consume only renewable energy that is cyclic and safe; for example products made using renewable energy such as wind and photovoltaic
Safe sustainability
all releases air, water, land or space are 'food' for their systems; for example products that do not emit unnecessary pollutants or chemicals during their manufacture
Efficient sustainability
Products that in manufacture and use, require 90% less energy, materials and water than equivalent products did in 1990
Social sustainability
Products whose manufacture and use support basic human rights and natural justice e.g. fairtrade products, which reduces exploitation of the workforce by the fair share of profits
How to make the 'raw materials' stage more sustainable
Use less materials, use materials that have less of an environmental impact, consider recyclable materials, and adhere to relevant legislation
How to make the 'manufacturing' stage more sustainable
Reduce energy use, simplify processes where appropriate, reduce waste, and use natural resources efficiently, materials to reduce weight or quantity used, materials that release and require less energy
How to make the 'distribution stage' more sustainable
Reduce or lighten packaging, reduce mileage of transportation to customer, using local resources, saving fuel by reducing or lightening the amount of packaging used in products
How to make the 'use' stage more sustainable
Increase durability of products, encourage refill consumables where appropriate, use green credentials as a positive marketing strategy, and promote efficient use of a product, no built-in-obsolescence,
How to make the 'end of life' stage more sustainable
Make, reuse and recycle easier, reduce waste to landfill
environmental impact of paper and board
deforestation, environmental degradation of forest areas, distribution, chemical pollutants used in chemical wood pulp production and bleaching
environmental impact of metal
Environmental impact of mining activities e.g. energy use, open cast mining, transportation, vast amounts of energy required to process ores and resultant co2 emissions
environmental impact of polymers
environmental impact of drilling activities, e.g. energy use, destruction of habitats, vast amounts of energy required to refine oil and produce polymers with resultant co2 emissions
Coca-cola '202' drinks can
produces and distributes around 2 billion cans a year, the 202 can has a reduced end diameter, whilst maintaining the same volume of liquid, it reduced the raw materials used, reduced costs, lightweight
Liquefied petroleum gas
relatively good fuel availability, good range of kits availability, reduced emissions, increasingly good supply of used vehicles, low-cost fuel, reliable performance, not available for diesel vehicles, no factory-fit models available
Bio ethanol
reduced emissions, increased power, factory-fit models now available, renewable fuel, poor availability of fuel, limited availability of vehicles, similar price to diesel, up to 30% lower than the economy of petrol
Compressed natural gas
kits fit to existing diesel vehicles, similar economy to diesel, reduces diesel emissions, poor availability, slow refuelling times
zero emissions, renewable fuel, very poor availability of fuel, limited availability of kits and vehicles
zero emissions, very limited range, slow charging/refilling time
waste is considered a
lost profit
reduce the quantities of materials, and use minimal packaging
UK producer responsibility Obligations Regulations 1997 means
manufacturers are obliged to reduce packaging use
Recycle, recover, reuse, and reduce
Governments envirowise program suggests that
manufacturers need to consider the materials and designs they use, examine ways of eliminating or reducing packaging, optimise packaging use
Ambler of Ballyclare
implemented an environment policy focusing on minimising packaging waste, the financial benefits of which were £103,002 per year, and reduced use of vehicles for transportation lead to a 42% decrease in carbon monoxide emissions
Advantages of reusing
minimised extraction and processing of raw materials and the energy and resources required for recycling
Example of reusing
refillable containers
waste that cannot be readily recycled but can be incenterated in specialised power stations to generate electricity and provide hot water to the local area
Tetra Pak education service claims
You could run a 40W bulb for an hour and a half on the energy released when one aseptic carton is burnt
takes waste materials and products and reprocessing them to manufacture something new
paper and board can be recycled
4-6 times
disadvantage of recycling paper and board
not all types can be recycled, can only be recycled 4-6 times, has to be mixed with virgin pulp, produce lower quality products, weaker, may be contaminated

Corrugated board

Made from 100% recycled paper and board for both single or multi-ply kraft liners and fluting provided iquid starch for extra stiffness and extra strength
Contains weak fibres due to its short lifespan
How is paper recycled
It is collected by the local authority, graded and sent to a paper mill, a hydrapuer filled with water turns the paper waste into a slush and large contaminants are removed, it is then filtered and screened to make it suitable for paper-making, depending on it's quality virgin pulp may be added.
Pulp substitue grades
Top quality waste than can be used with little need for cleaning, e.g. unprinted trimmings, used for printing and writting papers
De-inking grades
Grades from which the ink is removed before recycling, e.g. newspapers, used for tissues
Kraft grades
Long strong fibres that generally come from unbleached packaging materials, e.g. paper sacks, used for corrugated cases
Lower grades
consist of mixed papers that are uneconomic to sort due either to small quantities or the level of non-reycylable material being too high e.g. junk mail, used for middle layers of packaging papers and boards