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6 Cards in this Set

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The Grand Alliance and Tensions at Yalta & Potsdam
The Allies that defeated Nazi Germany in the second world war in Europe. USA, Great Britain and USSR/Soviet Union.
Soviet and US had 2 opposing political systems. In russian revolution, 1919 US had sent troops with French, British and Japanese sent troops in a "War of intervention". Soviets believed this showed US wanted to destroy communism.
Belief furthered when Stalin suggested a "popular front" against Nazis, which was rejected by other allies. However the war pushed these tensions to one side, Churchill, Stalin and FDR all seeemed to get along and were more concerned with the end of the war.
At Yalta(February) it was agreed after that after the war:
-Stalin would help the Americans in the war against Japan
-Stalin would try to persuade the chinese communists to end their civil war
-Free elections would be allowed in Poland (Declaration on Liberated Europe)
Truman was determined not to be seen as soft on Communism like FDR had been criticised for. Although he had inherited FDR's avisors they were divided o how to approach the Soviets; but the majority decided they should be harder on the Russians.
Truman was prominent on the platform in FULTON, MISSOURI when Churchill made his "iron curtain" speech (12 May 1945)
Historians suchas Robert McMahon have argued that the USA looked at the immediate past to understand international relations (Robert McMahon, The Cold War: A Short Introduction, 2003) In the American view appeasement of Hitler had encouraged aggression so it was essential to stand up to Stalin.
The USSR wanted to protect themsleves so felt a "buffer zone" of soviet-friendly states would help, they had been invaded twice in less than 50 years. However this was gaoing against the Atlantic Charter agreed by FDR and Churchill in 1941 so was viewed by the Americans as aggression.
The Soviets had lost 20 million people in the war, more than another country, they were weak but still had the world's largest army. The US had atomic monopoly and acted tough because they felt threatened by the Russians.
The Truman Doctrine
The Grand alliance was already disintergrating by 1946 and the Americans were worried by the spread of communism in Eastern Europe to Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Albania. (Czechoslovakia turned communist in 1948). The Russians also had direct control over the Baltic States.
In the Greek civil war,Britain was helping the monarchists fight against the communists but in February 1947 they told the Americans they could no longer afford to be involved. Truman beleived that the Greek communists were supported by the Soviet Union and the US had to prevent communist expansion in Greece and in Turkey where the Russians were making demands.
The US took over from Britain in Greece under Truman's direction. In a speech to congress in 1947 Truman said "I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside forces." This became known as THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE. A part of Containment and the foundation for American foreign policy for the next 40 years.
Yalta and potsdam continued
What had Changed from Yalta to Potsdam
-FDR the US president who was more lenient toward USSR died in April 1945 (After Yata, before Potsdam). Truman then took his place as President who was determined to be more tough on the Soviets.
-British general eletions had been held and Churchill was replaced by Attlee and his stongly pro American foreign secretary Ernest Bevin.
-Truman received the news that the Manhattan Project was a sucess and they had a successful atomic bomb. But they kept the extent of the new weapon a secret from Stalin.
At Potsdam (July) it was agreed:
-Germany and Austria were to be temporarily divided and occupied. They were also to be deNazified.
-Territory would be taken from Germany and given to the Polish, effectively moving Germany west, USSR were awarded reparations from Germany
-The western powers would accept the soviet back government of Polandould accept the soviet back government of Poland
Trumans desire to stand up to Stalin was encouraged by the "Long Telegram" written by George Kennan who was the charge d'affaires in Moscow. The memorandum said that conflict between the two powers was inevitable give Russian history of aggression and the expasionist communist ideology. Instead he advised that the US should stand up t the USSR when they tried to expand aggressively. The next year he wrote an article in Forgeing Affairs magazine under the pseudonym "Mr X" developing his theory further. He didn't see containment as primarily military; rather he felt it would be enforced through economics and poltical influence.
Truman and many in the American government saw communism as a totalarian ideology committed to world domination. Communism and the US's capitalist democracy were incompatible; a view Stalin seemed to chare in his Bolshoi speech in 1946.
The Marshall Plan
After WW1 American insisted on the repyment of the money lent out by countries that were still weak after the war. This had greatly contributed to the depression in the 1930s. For economic, moral and political reasons American gave money to European countries to ensure their recovery. This became known as MARSHALL AID. It was seen as the economic counter part of the Truman Doctrine, created by George Marshall the US Secretary of State.
The US gave out $13.5 billion to 16 countries ober 5 years through the Marshall Plan (around $100 billion today) Aid was given in cash and goods, some controlled by the US.
Marshall Aid was offered to Eastern European countries including the USSR, which they refused as the US need economic information about the country in receipt of the aid; something which the Soviets were not willing to disclose. The Americans knew that the USSR would never give out the information, so seemed clear they never wanted the USSR to get the aid.
The aim of Marshal Aid was to "combat hunger poverty, desperation and chaos." but there was an element of anti-communism about it. The US beleived communism spread through the poor, therefore strengthening the european economies would prevent the spread of communist influence.