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85 Cards in this Set

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Personality

Individual unique characteristics, predisposition to behave in certain sporting context
3 personality theories
Trait- innate (born with)
Social learning- learnt
Interactonist- Both
Trait Personality
Relative stable & enduring characteristics which could used to predict our behaviour in a variety of situations
Eysenks Trait Theory
He devised a personality questionnaire where he identified 2 main dimensions
Introvert-Extrovert
Neurotic-Stable
Is Eysenks trait theory reliable
No
As is subjective, interpretation of q's, too vague, misunderstanding Q and answer hoe want to be perceived
Limitations of Eysenks theory test
time consuming, hand version harder to assess results, tedious and expensive
Cattels Trait Theory
Believed that more than 2 or 3 dimensions needed and developed personality profile that measured 16 personality factors (16 pf questionnaire)
Evaluation of trait theories
too simplistic, do not take into account nature of personal development of athlete, unreliable predictor of behaviour, don't take into account environment or situation and personality was more dynamic
Bandura Social learning theory
Believes we can learn through 2 different types of experience - modelling (observe what other people do and imitate it) & reinforcement (rewarded when do something likely to do again)
What are 4 main parts of Social Learning
Attention
Retention
Motor Production
Motivational Response
The Interactional Approach
Lewing theory states that behaviour is combination of inherent personality and environmental factors through B=F (P.E)
Behaviour is the function of personality & environment
Hollanders Model
4 cores
Psychological core
Typical responses
Role related behaviours
Social environment
POMS
Test designed to measure certain psychological traits and is a popular tool among sport psychologists
6 factors of POMS
Tension
Depression
Anger
Vigour
Fatigue
Confusion
Achievement Motivation
Gill (1986) - A person who has high levels of achievement motivation have a tendency to strive for success, persist in face of failure & experience pride and accomplishment
Need to Achieve
seeks challenge, standards are important, persists for longer, enjoy evaluation situation, not afraid of failure, optimistic, confident and task goal
Need to Avoid Failure
Avoids challenge, dislikes 50-50, gives up easy, not like feedback, dislikes evaluation, avoids personal responsibility, low confidence, takes long time over task and outcome goal orientated
Atkinson 2 parts for Achievement Motivation
Personality (NACH&NAF) & Situation (probability of success)
Attitude
A complex mix of feelings, beliefs & values that predisposes the individual to behave towards something/someone in a consistent way
How is attitude formed
watch others, past experiences, mood/personality, family, peers, rewards and role models/media
Types of Attitude
Positive- formed towards familiar tasks/attitude object
Negative- formed due to bad experience (prejudice)
Triadic model of attitude
Cognitive- beliefs/knowledge
Affective- feeling/emotion
Two above affect behavioural- action
Factors affecting Attitude
Importance of attitude- stronger the more consistent the behaviour
Strength of attitude- stronger the more stable it will be
Control of behaviour- greater then more likely to be repeated
Measuring Attitude
observations, interviews, physiological response and questionnaire
Problems with measuring Attitude
Subjective, difficult to express in words, bias q's and truthful answers
Strategies to improve Attitude
Positive feedback, back to basics, constructive criticism, rewards, role of responsibility, goal setting and use role models
Hostile Aggression
Intent to harm & inflict injury, actions outside rules of game and anger
Instrumental Aggression
Within the rules of game/sport, motive is successful execution of the skill there is no intent to harm
Assertive Aggression
No intent to harm, within rukes & spirit of game and motive to successfully execute skill only
Instinct Aggression Theory
Aggression is innate, all behaviours driven by instincts and aggression is built up & needs to be released to maintain our well being
Problems with Intincst Aggression Theory
Can be used to explain some behaviors people who have more recently looked at the therory feel doesn't explain all behaviours
Frustration Aggression Hypothesis Theory
Indicates that frustration is more likely to lead to aggression if the aggressive behaviour helps eliminate the frustration
Problem with frustration aggression hypothesis theory
Not all individuals become aggressive when frustrated so comes from innate and environmental factors
Social learning theory of aggression
Individuals behave according to how they have learned to behave by observing e.g. role models
Aggressive Cue Hypothesis
Frustration will cause arousal to increase but aggression will only occur when socially acceptable cues are present
Deindividuation
When people lose their sense of individual identity and is relevant to football crowds and football hooliganism where individuals may not not take responsibility for their actions
Causes of aggression
Type of sport, importance of events, social learning, intimidation, losing and personality traits
How a player can eliminate aggression
Mental rehearsal, imagery, negative thought stopping, relaxion techniques, deep breathing, bio feedback, count to ten and walk away
How can a coach eliminate aggression from his performer
Praise non aggression, highlight role models, punish aggression, peer pressure, performance goals, be a role model, responsibility and rewards
5 stages of group formation
Forming, storming, norming, performing and adjuring
Group Cohesion
Extent to which the group works to achieve a common goal
2 types of group cohesion
Task- Work towards a goal, drive to achieve common objective (vital in rugby)
Social- Interaction of individuals, relationships and social bands (vital in track&Filed)
Carrons model of group cohesion
Four antecedents (factors) affect cohesion (task&social)
4 antecedents of Carrons model of group cohesion
Environment
Personal
Leadership
Team
Steiner's Model
Actual productivity= Potential productivity - Losses due to faulty processes (things that go wrong)
Ringelman effect
Individuals performance decreases as group size increases (co-ordination problems)
Social Loafing
Is a loss of individual motivation
Strategies used to eliminate social loafing
Highlight individual performances, use statistics, team-mates to encourage & support, team-mates to apply pressure, role of responsibility, video analysis and make fun/enjoyable
Strategies used to eliminate ringelman effect
Put player together that play well with each other, verbal feedback in the game, use small sided games in training, praise cohesive play and encourage socials off the pitch
Autocratic leadership
Dictator, no input from the group, task orientated and most useful with large groups & cognitive
Democratic leadership
Gives group more of decision making, person orientated and most useful with small groups and more experienced players
Laissez faire leadership
Passive leader, group dictate what they want to do and not recommended in sport but will only be effective in well established cohesive groups
Fidler leadership theory
Leaders will match style to the situation
3 different situations of Fidler leadership theory
Most favourable- best, clear task, strong leader, group/leadership relationship good
Moderately favourable
Least favourable- worst, unclear task, weak leader, group leadership relationship poor
2 styles from Fidler leadership theory
Task orientated- Autocratic
Person orientated- Democratic
Self Confidence
Belief in your own ability to master a situation/sport
Vealey said self confidence is based upon....
Personality- competitiveness/achievement motivation
Experience- past success & future success
Situation- home or away
Bandura Self Efficacy theory
Proposed concept of "self efficacy" and that it can affect: Choice of activity, amount of effort/motivation and task persistence
Bandura Self Efficacy theory affected by......
Performance accomplishments- what you have done before
Vicarious experience- watching others
Verbal Persuasion- Encouragement from significant others
Emotional arousal- anxiety/arousal levels
2 types of confidence
Trait- born with
State- Situation specific e.g. taking a penalty
Social facilitation
Influence of the presence of OTHERS on performance= positive effect
Social Inhibition
Influence of the presence of OTHERS on performance= negative effect
OTHERS which affect performance
Audience, Co-actors, competitive co-actors, social reinforcer's and scouts
Evaluation Apprenshion
A performer feels that they are being evaluated by OTHERS. Often this can increase arousal & will either have a negative or positive effect
Factors affecting Social facilitation
novice or elite performer (NAF or NACH), type of feedback given & who from, knowledge of opponents, knowledge of others, skill level, nature of crowd and proximity of spectators
Strategies for combating social inhibition
develop use of mental rehearsal, train in front of others and gradually increase, improve selective attention so cut out audience, reduce importance of event, avoid social compassion with others, encourages support from team-mates, teach/coach in a non evaluative environment and goal setting (Process & Performance)
Attribution Theory
The reasons we give for why we have lost or won
If a coach/performer uses attributions correctly this can increase/improve performance
Weiners attribution model
Causes (Locus of casualty)
Internal- Within our won control (ability or effort)
External- Outside our control (luck/task difficulty)
Stability (lows of stability)
Stable-unchangeable/permanent (ability)
Unstable- changeable (effort&Luck)
How to promote self confidence
Goal setting, role of responsibility, past experiences, increase praise by coaches for positive play, mental rehearsal, negative thought stopping, give opportunities to perform successfully, selective attention and bring in role models
Somatic signs of arousal
Increased HR, increased BR, sweating, headache, cold clammy hands, butterflies, urinate, dry mouth, dazed look in eyes, nausea and increased muscle tension
Cognitive signs of arousal
Increased focus & concentration, heightened awareness of important cues in the environment, narrowing attention, decreased reaction time, tension, difficulties sleeping, fear & anger, Anxiety, negative self talk and inability to concentrate
Drive Theory
A theory of arousal that proposes a linear relationship between arousal & performance; as arousal increases so does that of performance
Problems with Drive Theory
Habitual behaviour/dominant response is not always the correct one
By increasing drive (arousal) performers often resort to previously learned skills because they are dominant but may be incorrect
Even highly skilled players 'choke' in high charged situations
Inverted U Theory
A theory of arousal that considers that optimal performance occurs when the performer reaches an optimal level of arousal
Catastrophe theory
More of a model than a theory as it tries to predict behaviour rather than explain it plus it is linked/developed from inverted U theory
Anxiety
A negative form of arousal
2 categories of anxiety
Trait- Innate a& enduring, demonstrates anxiety in ALL situations
State- Differ in different situation "Changeable"
Cognitive responses to anxiety
Loss of concentration, feelings of apprehension, inability to cope, attentional narrowing and fear of failure
Somatic response to anxiety
Sweating, increased muscle tension, feelings of nausea, increased HR and increased BR
Cognitive techniques for controlling anxiety
Imagery
Visualisation
Attentional control
Self-talk
Somatic techniques for controlling anxiety
Biofeedback
Breathing Control
Centring
Progressive muscular relaxation (PMR)
Goal setting important because...
Allows targets to be met
Builds confidence
Motivation
Lowers arousal/anxiety
Goals need to be...
Specific
Measurable
Agreed
Realistic
Timed
Exciting
Recorded
3 Types of goals
Process goals, performance goals and outcome goals
Anxiety tests
Self-report questionnaires, STAI, SCAT and CSAI-2