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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which point on the curve in the diagram above best represents the carrying capacity of the environment for the population shown?
Assume that genes A and B are not linked. If the probability of allele A in a gamete is ½ and the probability of allele B in a gamete is 1/2, then the probability that both A and B are in the same gamete is
A. 1/2 x 1/2
A couple has 5 children, all sons. If the woman gives birth to a sixth child, what is the probability that the sixth child will be a son?
B. 1/2
All of the following are true about Earth’s ozone layer EXCEPT:
C. Its thickness has remained constant over time
Which of the following organelles modifies and packages for secretion the materials produced by the ribosome?
B. The Golgi Apparatus
Which of the following types of behavior describes the way that mice find their way through mazes?
E. Trial and Error
A student using a light microscope observes a cell and correctly decides that it is a plant cell because
D. It has a large central vacuole
The condition in which there are barriers to successful interbreeding between individuals of different species in the same community is referred to as
E. Reproductive Isolation
Which of the following best describes the parents in a testcross?
A. One individual has the dominant phenotype and the other has the recessive phenotype.
Members of which of the following are the major primary producers in the marine ecosystem?
E. Diatoms
In sheep, eye color is controlled by a single gene with two alleles. When a homozygous brown-eyed sheep is crossed with a homozygous green-eyed sheep, blue-eyed offspring are produced. If the blue-eyed sheep are mated with eat other, what percent of their offspring will most likely have brown eyes?
B. 25%
Gas exchange in all living organisms requires
D. Moist membranes
Which of the following best supports the statement that mitochondria are descendents of endosymbiotic bacteria-like cells?
A. Mitochondria and bacteria possess similar ribosomes and DNA.
Which of the following best characterizes the reaction represented above?
E. Endergonic reaction
Which of the following occurs during mitosis but not during meiosis I?
B. The chromatids of each chromosome are separated.
Oxygen consumption can be used as a measure of metabolic rate because oxygen is
A. necessary for ATP synthesis by oxidative
Membranes are components of all of the following EXCEPT a
A. microtubule
In a mesophyll cell of a leaf, the synthesis of ATP occurs in which of the following?
II. Mitochondria
III. Chloroplasts
Which of the following pairs of functional groups characterizes the structure of an amino acid?
Which of the following statements best expresses the concept of punctuated equilibrium?
D. Evolutionary changes consist of rapid bursts of speciation alternating with long periods in which species remain essentially unmodified.
In animals, all of the following are associated with embryonic development EXCEPT
C. activation of all the genes in each cell
Which of the following exists as RNA surrounded by a protein coat?
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells generally have which of the following features in common?
C. Ribosomes
Which of the following is primarily responsible for cell elongation, gravitropism, and apical dominance in plants?
A. Auxin
A large stand of aspen trees may be a group of genetically identical individuals produced by vegetative reproduction. Such a collection of individuals is called a
C. Clone
Which of the following groups contains prokaryotic organisms capable of surviving the greatest extremes in temperature or salt concentration?
B. Archaebacteria
Which of the following is LEAST likely to result in a release of epinephrine (adrenaline) from the adrenal glands?
C. Falling asleep during a lecture
In peas the trait for tall plants if dominant (T) and the trait for short plants is recessive (t). The trait for yellow seed color is dominant (Y) and the trait for green seed color is recessive (y). A cross between two plants results in 296 tall yellow plants and 104 tall green plants. Which of the following are most likely to be the genotypes of the parents?
D. TtYY x Ttyy
Which of the following is best observed by using a compound light microscope?
A. A eukaryotic cell
Plant stems bend toward a light source as a result of increased
E. Cell elongation on the side of the stem away from the light source
All of the following are typical components of the plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell EXCEPT
B. cytochromes
The rate of division of most vertebrate cells is LEAST likely to be influenced by which of the following?
D. The cell’s photoperiod
The gametophyte is the dominant generation in which of the following plants?
E. Mosses
Nuclear division in which the chromosome number is reduced from 2n to n is part of the life cycle of all of the following organisms EXCEPT
D. Bacteria
The driving force for the movement of materials in the phloem of plants is
B. a difference I osmotic potential between the source and the sink
In plants, the initiation of flowering in response to photoperiod is triggered by changes in
Carbon dioxide is transported in human blood primarily in which of the following ways?
A tobacco plant can be made to express a gene from fireflies, resulting in the emission of light. Which of the following is the basis for this phenomenon?
D. Transcription and translation are fundamentally similar in both fireflies and tobacco plants.
All of the following were likely present on the primitive Earth during the evolution of self-replicating molecules EXCEPT
E. an O2-rich atmosphere
Which of the following characterizes glomerular filtrate, the fluid that passes from the blood in the glomerulus into the tubule of the nephron?
D. It is blood plasma that lacks most proteins.
During respiration, most ATP is formed as a direct result of the net movement of
B. protons down a concentration gradient
Which of the following groups is best characterized as being eukaryotic and heterotrophic and having chitinous cell walls?
C. Fungi
In humans, red-green color blindness is a sex-linked recessive trait. If a man and a woman produce a color-blind son, which of the following must be true?
E. The mother carries the allele for color blindness.
In a small group of people living in a remote area, there is a high incidence of “blue skin,” a condition that results from a variation in the structure of hemoglobin. All of the “blue-skinned” residents can trace their ancestry to one couple, who were among the original settlers of this region. The unusually high frequency of “blue skin” in the area is an example of
B. genetic drift
Which of the following processes is carried out more efficiently by a C4 plant than by a C3 plant?
D. Fixation of CO2
A number of different phylogenies (evolutionary trees) have been proposed by scientists. These phylogenies are useful because they can be used to
B. evaluate which groups of organisms may be most closely related
Which of the following characteristics is common to all vascular plants that exhibit an alternation of generations in their life cycle?
B. Multicellular sporophytes
The rate of flow of water through the xylem is regulated by
B. the force of transpirational pull
Which of the following pathways for the transformation of cellular energy most likely evolved first?
E. Glycolysis
Gibberellic acid stimulates the cells of germinating grass seeds to produce mRNA molecules that code for hydrolytic enzymes. In this case the role of gibberellic acid can best be described as that of
A. a regulator of gene activity
Which of the following is the most likely explanation for a high rate of crossing-over between two genes?
A. The two genes are far apart on the same chromosome.
On a sunny day, the closing of stomata in plant leaves results in
A. a decrease in CO2 intake
Which of the following principles is NOT part of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection?
C. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation.
In certain Native American groups, albinism due to a homozygous recessive condition in the biochemical pathway for melanin is sometimes seen. If the frequency of the allele for this condition is 0.06, which of the following is closest to the frequency of the dominant allele in this population? (Assume that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.)
E. 0.94
A biologist isolates numerous tiny, green-pigmented cells from a sample of lake water. The cells are covered with a mucilaginous sheath. They contain relatively large amounts of chlorophyll a and phycobilin pigments and lack a compact, organized nucleus. Electron microscopy will reveal that these cells also contain which of the following pairs of subcellular structures?
D. Thylakoids and a cell wall
In the pedigree above, squares represent males and circles represent females. Individuals who express a particular trait are represented by shaded figures. Which of the following patterns of inheritance best explains the transmission of the trait?
D. Autosomal dominant
Which of the following is an example of active transport across a membrane?
E. The movement of H+ into a thylakoid disc during photosynthesis
Which of the following is the most direct result of the presence of acid chime in the small intestine?
D. The intestinal lining produces the hormone secretin
Many parasitic flatworms have an intermediate host. This indicates that the
B. larval flatworms infect one species, whereas adults infect another species
Red algae can grow at greater ocean depths than most other algae can because red algae are
C. specialized for absorbing blue wavelengths of light for photosynthesis.
Which of the following cellular processes is coupled with the hydrolysis of ATP?
B. Active transport
Which of the following cells would most likely have the greatest concentration of densely packed rough endoplasmic reticulum?
C. A pancreatic cell engaged in the production of digestive enzymes
In which of the following pairs are the organisms most closely related taxonomically?
B. Spider..crayfish
Releases hormones that control blood sugar levels by stimulating glycogen formation or breakdown
E. Pancreas
Secretes steroid hormones that affect secondary sex characteristics
A. Testis
Releases hormones that increase the rate of cellular respiration throughout the body
D. Thyroid
Secretes the hormones FSH and LH, which control ovulation
C. Anterior pituitary
Long, cold, moist winters and short summers are typical of this biome dominated by gymnosperms.
E. Taiga
A prolonged, relatively mild period with ample precipitation alternates with a cold period when plants become dormant.
A. Deciduous forest
This biome has the greatest diversity of species.
B. Tropical rain forest
This biome is dominated by dwarf shrubs, grasses, and sedges that can tolerate long dark winters.
D. Tundra
Process in which O2 is released as a by-product of oxidation-reduction reactions
D. Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
Process in which CO2 is released as a by-product of oxidation-reduction reactions
B. Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)
Process in which carbon from CO2 is incorporated into organic molecules
C. Calvin cycle (light-independent reactions of photosynthesis)
Process found in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration
E. Chemiosmosis
Process in which sugar is oxidized to pyruvic acid
A. glycolysis
Bilaterally symmetrical: deuterostome: dorsal hollow nerve cord
E. Chordate
Coelomate: exoskeleton: jointed appendages
C. Arthropoda
Pharyngeal slits: endoskeleton derived from mesoderm: ventral heart
D. Echinodermata
Internal calcareous skeleton: deuterostome: water-vascular system
B. Mollusca
Closed circulatory system: protostome: many body segments
A. Annelida
Process in which a protein is assembled at a ribosome
B. Translation
Process in which naked DNA is taken up by a bacterial or yeast cell
C. Transformation
Process that results in the production of cDNA from an RNA molecule
E. Reverse transcription
Process in which RNA is produced by using a DNA template
A. Transcription