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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nonliving, as in the physical enviornment
process of how water and dissolved substances pass though a membrane
an animal that lacks a coelom, has bilateral symmetry, and has one internal space - digestive cavity
action potential
the change in electrical potential across a nerve or muscle cell when stimulated . aka nerve impulse
active immunity
protective immunity to a disease in which the individual produces antibodies as a result of previous exposure to the antigen
a behavioural or biological change that enables an organism to adjust to its environment
a puring base that pairs with thymine in dna and uracil in rna
adenosine phosphate
adenosine diphosphate adp and adenosine triphosphate atp which are energy storage molecules
fatty tissue, fat stroring tissue, or fat within cells
adrenaline (epinephrine)
an emergency hormone stimulated by anger or fear, increases blood pressure and heart rate in order to supply the emergency needs of the muscles
adventitious roots
roots that develop in an unusual place
an organism that requires oxygen for respiration and can live only in the presence of oxygen
requiring free oxygen from the atmospher for normal activity and respiration
aerobic catabolism
metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simple ones through the use of oxygen, results in the release of energy
agonistic response
response of aggression or submission between two organisms
one of two or more types of genes each representing a particlar trait, many alleles exist for a specific gene locus
allopatric speciation
evolution of species that occurs in separate geographic areas
alternation of generations
the description of a plant life cycle that consists of a diploid, asexual, sporophyte generation and a haploid, sexual, gametophyte generation
an organism that does not require free oxygen in order to respire
living or active in the absence of free oxygen, pertaining to respiration that is independent of oxygen
anaerobic catabolism
metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simple ones without the use of oxygen reulsts in the release of energy
describes structures that have similar function but different evolutionary orgins. ex birds wing and moths wing
stage in mitosis that is characterized by the migration of chromatids to opposite end of the cell, stage in meiosis during which the homologous pairs migrate and the stage in meiosis during which chromatids migrate to different ends of the cell
a male sex hormone eg testosterone
a flowering plant, a plant of the class angiospermae that produces seeds enclosed in an ovary and is characterized by the possession of fruit and flowers
kingdom that includes all extinct and living animals
an antipathogenic substance ex penicillin
globular proteins produced by tissues that destroy or inactivates antigens
a foreign protein that stimulates the production of antibodies when introduced into the body of an organism
a structure that extends from the trunk of an organism and is capable of active movements
kingdom comprised of an ancient group of microorganisms (bacteria) that are metabolically and genetically different from other bacteria, they came before the eukaryotes
a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
asexual reproduction
production of daughter cells by means other than the sexual union of gametes (budding and binary fission)
enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of atp to adp, releases energy
autonomic nervous system
part of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary muscle such as the walls of the alimentary canal, inclues the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
autosomal genes
non sex linked genes
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
an organism that utilizes the energy of inorganic materials such as water and co2 or the sun to manufacture organic materials, ex plants.
nerve fiber
kingdom of single celled organisms that reproduce by fission and can be spiral, rod, or spherical shaped, often pathogenic organisms that rapidly reproduce.
base pair substitution
when one base pair is incorrectly reproduced and substituted for another base pair
bilateral symmetry
equal division of an organism from left and right half
an emulsifying agent secreted by the liver
bile salts
compunds in bile that aid in emulsification
binary fission
asexual reproduction, in this process the parent organism splits into two equal daughter cells
binomial nomenclature
system of naming an organism by its genus and species names
biological species concept bsc
definition of a species as a naturally interbreeding population of organisms that produces viable, fertile offspring
calvin cycle
cycle in photosynthesis that reduces fixed carbon to carbohydrates through the addition of electrons. aka dark cycle
CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism)
storage of carbon dioxide at night in the form of organic acids
an organic compound to which hydrogen and oxygen are attached, the hydrogen and oxygen are in a 2:1 ratio, ex. include sugars starches and cellulose.
carbon cycle
recycling of carbon from decaying organisms for use in future generations
carbon fixation
conversion of carbon dioxide into organic compouns using the calvin cycle, the second stage of photosynthesis. aka dark reaction
metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simple ones, releasing energy
central nervous system cns
encompasses the brain and the spinal cord
coupling of enzyme catalyzed reactions
chi squared analysis
test to see if a theory is backed up by experimental results
a plastid containing chlorophyll
green pigment that performs essential functions as an electron donor and light entrapper in photosynthesis
nuclear protein of chromosomes that stains readily
thecoagulation of blood caused by the rupture of platelets and the interaction of fibrin, fibrinogen, thrombin, prothrombin, and calcium ions
space between the mesodermal layers that forms the body cavity of some animal phyla
organisms that contain a coelom
cell in the retina that is sensitive to colors and is responsible for color vision
phylum of cone bearing gymnosperm trees and shrubs that are primarily needle and scale leaved
connective tissue
highly vascular matrix that forms the supporting and connecting structures of the body
primary, secondary, and tertiary
adaptive evolution of similar structures, such as wings
coupled reaction
chemical reaction in which energy is transferred from one side of the reatction to the other through a common intermediate
inward folds of the mitochondrial membrane
crossing over
exchange of parts of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
process by which the cytoplasm and the organelles of the cell divide, the final stage of mitosis
living matter of a cell, located between the cell membrane and nucleus
nitrogen base that is present in nucleotides and nucleic acids, paired with guanine
dark (Calvin) reactions
processes that occur after the light reactions of photosynthesis, during carbon fixation, without the presence of light
Charles Darwin
1809 - 1882 naturalist who came up with the theory of evolution based on natural selection
organisms that feed on and break down dead plant or animal matter
degree of freedom df
independent statistical category, number of categories of observation minus one
density dependent factors
effects that increase population density and smaller population size. Some examples of these are predation, disease and competition
density independent factors
effects that are independent of population size. Some examples of these are climate and catastrophe
a five carbon sugar that has one oxygen atom less than ribose, component of dna
determinate cleavage
irreversible division of an egg into specific areas for further development
means second mouth, mouth forms from the second opening of the digestive tract in embroys. these organisms have a mouth, radial cleavage, anus, coelom, and indeteminate cleavage in common
a progressive change from when a permanently more matrue or advanced state results for example, a relatively unspecialized cells development into a more specialized one
movement of particle from one place to another as a result of their random motion
process of breaking down large organic molecules into smaller ones
digestive system
the alimentary canal and glands which ingest, digest and absorb food
digestive tract
the alimentary canal
an organism that is heterozygous for two different traits
dihybrid cross
a hybridization between two traits each with two alleles
describes cells that have a double set of chromosomes in homologous pairs, 2n
directional selction
favors organisms that have extreme variation of traits within a population
disruptive (diversifying) selection
sudden changes in the environment cause organisms with extreme variation of traits in a population to be favored
biological classification of prokaryotes and eukaryotes into bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
ecological succession
the orderly process by which one biotic community replaces another until a climax community is established
the study of organisms in relation to their environment
ecological community and its environment
outer most embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the epidermis and nervous system
electrochemical gradient
diffusion gradient of an ion including potential and kinetic energy of the ion
electron transport chain
a complex carrier mechanism located on the insideof the inner mitochondrial membrane of cell, releases energy and is used to form atp
pertaining to a restricted locality, ecologically occurring only in one particular region
endocrine gland
a ductluss gland that secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream
endocrine hormone system
collection of ductless glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream with various effects on the body, includes thyroid gland, pituitary gland, etc
process where the cell membrane is folded inward to form a vesticle with an extracellular medium
the innermost embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the lining of the alimentary canal and to the digestive and respiratory organs
the inner portion of the cytoplasm of a cell or the portion that surrounds the nucleus
endoplasmic reticulum
a network of membrain enclosed spaces connected with the nuclear membrane. transports materials through the cell
energy flow
movement of energy throughout the trophic levels of an ecosystem
organic catalyst and protein
epidermal tissue
outer of integumentary layer of the body, including sebum adipose and skin cells
domain containing all eukaryotic organisms
pertaining to a type of gland that releases it secretion through a duct, ex slivary gland or liver
process by which the vesicle in the cell fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents to the outside
dna that is transcribed to rna and codes for protein synthesis
first filial generation
second filial generation, offspring resulting from the corssing of individuals of the f1 generation