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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Master controlling and communication system of the body

Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System

1. Sensory Input

2. Integration

3. Motor Output

Two Divisions of Nervous System

1. Central Nervous System

2. Peripheral Nervous System

Central Nervous System consists of:

1. Brain

2. Spinal Cord

Peripheral Nervous System consists of:

Everything outside the CNS. Nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord

What are the two function sub divisions of the PNS?

1. Sensory Division (Afferent)

2. Motor Division (Efferent)

What sub division of the PNS consists of nerve fibers that convey impulses TOWARD the CNS from sensory receptors

Sensory Division (AFFERENT=TOWARD)

What sub division of the PNS consists of nerve fibers that transmits impulses from CNS to effector organs

Motor Division (EFFERENT=AWAY)

What are the two subdivisions of the PNS Motor Division?

1. Somatic Nervous System

2. Autonomic Nervous System

What system is referred to as the voluntary nervous system and is composed of nerve fibers that conduct impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles?

Somatic Nervous System

What system is referred to as the involuntary nervous system and consists of visceral motor nerve fibers that regulate the activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscles, and glands

Autonomic Nervous System

What are the two subdivisions of the Autonomic Nervous System?

1. Sympathetic Division

2. Parasympathetic Division

Which subdivision of the Autonomic Nervous System mobilizes body systems during activity, and controls the fight or flight response?

Sympathetic Division

Which subdivision of the Autonomic Nervous System conserves energy and promotes house-keeping functions during rest?

Parasympathetic Division

Excitable nerve cells that transmit electrical signals


Supporting cells that surround and wrap around the more delicate neurons?


What are the four types of Neuroglia in the CNS?

1. Astrocytes

2. Microglia

3. Ependymal

4. Oligodendrocytes

"Star Cells"

Abundant and Versatile

Support and brace neurons to nutrient supply line

Recycle released neurotransmitters


Thorny, veiny, processes

Monitor health of neurons

Can perform macrophage duties and phagocytize dead neurons or neuronal debri

Microglial Cells

"Wrapping garment"

Line central cavities of brain and spinal cord


Ependymal Cells

Line up along the thicker nerve fibers in the CNS and wrap their processes tightly around the fibers

Myelin Sheath

What are the two kinds of neuroglia in the PNS?

1. Satellite Cells

2. Schwann Cells

Cells that surround neuron cell bodies located in the PNS

The "astrocytes" of the PNS

Satellite Cells

Cells that surround all the nerve fibers in the PNS.

Form myelin sheath around the thicker nerve fibers

Schwann Cells

What is the structural unit of the nervous system?


What are the three special characteristics of neurons?

1. Extreme Longevity

2. Amitotic (can't divide)

3. High Metabolic Rate

What are clusters of cell bodies in the CNS

What are clusters of cell bodies in the PNS


Bundles of neuron processes in the PNS are called


Bundles of neuron processes in the CNS are called

Movement along the axon away from the cell body


Movement along the axon towards the cell body


Protects and insulates fibers

Increases transmission speed of nerve impulses

Only covering axons

Myelin Sheath

What are gaps between myelin sheath

Nodes of Ranvier
What is white matter in the brain?

Myelinated Fibers
What is the gray matter in the brain?

Nerve cell bodies

What are the three structural classifications of Neurons?

1. Mulitpolar

2. Bipolar

3. Unipolar

These neurons have three or more processes; one axon and the rest dendrites; most common neuron type

Multipolar Neurons

These neurons have two process; an axon and a dendrite

Bipolar Neurons

These neurons have a single short process that emerges from the cell body and divides T-Like into proximal and distal brances

Unipolar Neurons

What are the 3 functional classifications of neurons?

1. Sensory Neurons (afferent)

2. Motor Neurons (efferent)

3. Interneurons

Which neurons transmit impulses from sensory receptors in the skin or internal organs toward or into the CNS

Sensory Neurons

Which neurons carry impulses away fromt eh CNS to the effector organs (muscles and glands) of the body

Motor Neurons

Which neurons lie between motor and sensory neurons in neural pathways and shuttle signals through CNS pathways where integration occurs

Interneurons make up over __% of the neurons in the body?


What is a decrease in membrane potential?


What is an increase in membrane potential?


A. Dendrites

B. Cell Body

C. Axon

D. Axon Terminals

What is also known as the cell body of a neuron?


The rough ER of a neuron is also known as the...

Nissl Bodies (chromatophilic substance)
A junction that mediates information transfer from one neuron to the next or from a neuron to an effector cell
A potential difference in a resting neuron

resting membrane potential
What two factors generate the resting membrane potential?

1. Differences in the ionic composition of the intracellular and extracellular fluids

2. Differences in the permeability of the plasma membrane to those ions

Changes in membrane potential can produce two types of signals:

1. Graded Potentials

2. Action Potentials

What type of potentials are short lived, localized changes in membrane potential that can be either depolarizations or hyperpolarizations

Graded Potentials (local potentials)
A brief reversal of a membrane potential with a total amplitude of about 100mV

Action Potential

What are the stages of an action potential?

1. Resting State

2. Depolarization

3. Repolarization

4. Hyperpolarization

What stage in an action potential has all Na+ and K+ gates closed?
1. Resting State

What state in an action potential starts when Na+ channels open. During this stage the stimulation site reaches a critical level called threshold.

2. Depolarization

What stage in an action potential has the Na+ channels closing and the K+ channels opening.

3. Repolarization

What stage in an action potential has some of the K+ channels remaining open and all the Na+ channels reset

4. Hyperpolarization
Period from the opening of the Na+ channels until the Na+ channels begin to reset to their original resting state. No stimulus, no matter the size, can get the neuron to respond and start another action potention

Absolute refractory Period
Period of time when a stimulus that would normally generate an action potential is no longer sufficient, but an exceptionally strong stimulus can start it
Interval following the absolute refractory period

Relative refractory Period

Action potentials triggered only at the gaps is a conduction known as....

This type of conduction is 30 times faster than continuous conduction.

Saltatory Conduction

Part of the axon that contains many tiny, membrane-bounded sacs called synaptic vesicles

Axon terminal

Tiny, membrane bounded sacs in the axon terminal containing thousands of neurotransmitter molecules

synaptic vesicles

Stages of chemical synapse transmitting signals to another neuron

1. Action potential arrives at axon terminal

2. voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open and Ca2+ enters the axon terminal

3. Ca2+ entry causes synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitter by exocytosis

4. Neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to receptors on postsynaptic membrane

5. binding of neurotransmitter opens ion channels, creating grading potentials

6. neurotransmitter effects are terminated

The means by which each neuron communicates with others to process and send messages to the rest of the body

This embryonic structure is the beginning of the brain and spinal cord

Neural Tube

What are the three primary brain vesicles?

1. Prosencephalon (forebrain)

2. Mesencephalon (midbrain)

3. Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

What two divisions does the Forebrain divide into?

1. Telencephalon

2. Diencephalon

The hindbrain constricst, forming which two divisions?

1. Metencephalon

2. Myelencephalon

The telencephalon sprouts two lateral swellings that become what?

The two cerebral hemispheres, known as the cerebrum

What forms the superior part of the brain, and accounts for about 83% of total brain mass?

The cerebral hemispheres
Elevated ridges of tissue that mark nearly the entire surface of the cerebral hemispheres


Shallow grooves that separate the gyri


Deep grooves that separate large regions of the brain?


What separates the cerebral hemispheres?

longitudinal fissure

What separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum below?

Transverse Cerebral Fissure

What separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe?
Central Sulcus

What separates the occipital lobe from the parietal lobe?

parietal-occipital sulcus

What sulcus outlines the flaplike temporal lobe, and separates it from the parietal and frontal lobes?

Lateral Sulcus

What helps form the floor of the lateral sulcus, and is the fifth lobe?

What are the three basic regions of the cerebral hemispheres?

1. Cerebral Cortex

2. Internal White Matter

3. Basla Nuclei

What is the "executive suite" of the nervous system?

Where conscious mind is found

Enables us to be aware of ourselves, our sensations, to communicate, to remember, understand, and initiate voluntary movements

Cerebral Cortex
What are the motor areas found in the frontal lobe?

primary motor cortex

premotor cortex

broca's area

frontal eye field

-located in precentral gyrus of frontal lobe

-control precise or skilled voluntary movement

-contain pyramidal cells, and pyramidal tracts

Primary Motor Cortex

-Anterior to the precentral gyrus in the front lobe

-Helps plan movement

-Selects and sequences basic motor movements

-coordinates the movement of several muscle groups simultaneously or sequentially

Premotor Cortex

-Anterior to the inferior region of the Premotor Area

-Considered to be present in the left hemisphere only

-Motor speech area that directs muscles involved in speech

Broca's Area

-Partially in and anterior to the premotor cortex

-Superior to Broca's Area

-Controls voluntary movement of the eyes

Frontal Eye Field

-Resides in the postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe

-Neurons receive information from general sensory receptors in the skin

-Just posterior to the primary motor cortex

Primary Somatosensory Cortex

-Lies just posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex

-Integrate sensory inputs (temp, pressure, etc) relayed by primary somatosensory cortex to produce an understanding of an object being felt

Somatosensory Associate Cortex

-Located on extreme posterior tip of occipital lobe

-Buried deep in the calcarine sulcus

-Largest cortical sensory area

-receives visual information that originals on the retina of the eye

Primary Visual Cortex

-Surrounds primary visual cortex and covers occipital lobe

-Communicates with primary visual cortex to sue past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli

-Enables recognition

Visual Association Area

-Two located in the superior margin of the temporal lobe

-Interprets the impulses from sound energy in the inner ear as pitch, loudness, and location

Primary Auditory Cortex

-Posterior to Primary Auditory Cortex

-Permits the perception of the sound stimulus

-Memories of sounds are stored here

Auditory Association Area

-Lies on the medial aspect of the temporal lobe

-Piriform lobe area

-Afferent fibers from smell receptors in nasal cavities send impulse along this area

Olfactory Cortex

-Region involved in perceiving taste stimuli

Gustatory Cortex

-Cortex of the insula, just posterior to the gustatory cortex is involved in conscious perception of visceral sensations

-Including: upset stomach, full bladder

, etc

Visceral Sensory Area

What broad cortex allows ps to give meaning to the information we receive, store it in memory, tie it to previous experience and knowledge, and decide what action to take

Multimodal Association Cortex

-Located in frontal lobe

-Most complicated cortical region of all

-Involved in: intellect, cognition, recall, and personality

-Develops slowly and relies on positive and negative feedback

Anterior Associate Area (Prefrontal Cortex)

The anterior associate area is also known as the...

prefrontal cortex

-Large region encompassing parts of the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes

-Plays a role in recognizing faces and patterns, and binding different sensory inputs into a whole

-Understanding written and spoken language

Posterior Associate Area

-Cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus

-Provides emotional impact that makes scene important to us

Limbic Associate Area

Division of labor for each hemisphere of the brain, where each has it's own abilities not completely shared by its partner


Designates the hemisphere that is dominant for language

cerebral dominance

Composed of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, associate glia and blood vessels, but no fiber tracts.

Contains billions of neurons arranged in six layers, and accounts for 40% of total brain mass

Cerebral cortex: Gray Matter

Responsible for communication between cerebral areas and between the cerebral cortex and lower CNS centers

-Consists largely of myelinated fibers

Cerebral White Matter

Fibers that connect different parts of the same hemisphere

Association Fibers

Fibers that connect corresponding gray areas of the two hemipsheres

-Allows the two hemispheres to function as a coordinated whole

Commissural Fibers

Largest commissure in brain

Lies superior to the lateral ventricles

Deep within the longitudinal fissure

Corpus Callosum

Fibers that either enter the cerebral cortex from lower brain or cord centers

-Motor output leaves the cerebral cortex through these fibers

Projection Fibers

Third basic region of each hemisphere

-Group of subcortical nuclei

Basal Nuclei

What does the basal nuclei of the cerebral cortex consist of?

1. Caudate Nucleus

2. Putamen

3. Globus Pallidus

Plays a role in cognitions and emotion

-Have no direct access to motor pathways

-Filters out incorrect or inappropriate responses

Basal Nuclei

What are the five lobes of the cerebrum?

1. Frontal

2. Parietal

3. Temporal

4. Occipital

5. Insula

Forms the central core of the forebrain and surrounded by cerebral hemispheres


What does the diencephalon consist of?

1. thalamus

2. hypothalamus

3. epithalamus

-Makes up 80% of the diencephalon

-THE relay station for information coming into the cerebral cortex

-Afferent impulses from all senses and all parts of the body converge on this

-Information is sorted out and edited

-plays key role in mediating sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal, learning, and memory


-Main visceral control center of the body

-Vitally important to overall body homeostasis

-Chief Roles: control autonomic nervous system, initiate physical responses to emotion, regulate body temperature, regulate food intake, regulate water balance, regulate sleep-wake cycles, control endocrine system functions


Emotional part of the brain

Limbic System

-Most dorsal portion of the diencephalon

-Pineal Gland extends from the posterior border

-Helps regulate sleep-wake cycle


Regions of the brain stem

1. Midbrain

2. pons

3. Medulla Oblongata