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57 Cards in this Set

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the study of humankind in all times and places
4 Subfields of Anthropology
Archeology, Biological Anthro, Cultural Anthro, and Linguistic Anthro
the study of human cultures through the analysis of material remains and environmental data.
Biological Anthropology
the study of humans as biological organisms
Cultural Anthropology
Social or sociocultural; the study of patterns in human behavior, thought, and feelings. Focuses on humans as a culture-producing and culture-reproducing creatures 2 PARTS OF CULTURAL ANTHRO: Ethnography and Enthology
Linguistic Anthropology
the study of human languages, looking at their structure, history, and/or relation to social and cultural contexts.
The task of discovering and describing a particular Culture OR a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork
Participant Observer
In ethnography, the technique of learning a person's culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over a long time.
a person who teaches his or her culture to an anthropologist
A mixture of belief and feeling that one’s own way of life is desirable and actually superior to others’
Cultural Relativism
the idea that one must suspend judgment of other people’s practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms
Tacit Culture
Cultural knowledge that people lack words for
Explicit Culture
Cultural knowledge that people can talk about.
Culture Shock
a state of anxiety that results from cross-cultural misunderstanding.
Naïve Realism
the belief that people everywhere see the world in the same way. E.i. dogs are treasured and loved in US. Pest in India.
PAGE 287
A society's shared ideas, values, and perceptions, which are use to make sense of experience and which generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior.
ask somebody
ask somebody
Language vs. Speech
ask somebody
a sign, sound, emblem, or other thing that is arbitrarily linked to something else and represents it in a meaningful way
the smallest unit of sound that makes a difference in meaning in a language.
the smallest unit of sound that carries a meaning in language. It is distinctive from a phoneme, which can alter meaning but has no meaning by itself
the patterns of rules by which morphemes are arranged into phrases and sentences.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
principle that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its respective speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or otherwise influences their cognitive processes
Code Switching
changing from one level of language to another as the situation demands, whether from one language to another or from one dialect of a language to another.
system of stratification defined by unequal access to economic resources and prestige, but permitting individuals to alter their rank
A form of stratification defined by unequal access to economic resources and prestige, which it acquired at birth and doesn’t permit individuals to alter their rank.
sharing nomadic people in Kalahari Desert/Hunter-Gatherers
complex system of social relationships based on marriage (affinity) and birth (consanguinity)
a fundamental principle of relationship linking kin through marriage
the principle of relationship linking individuals by shared ancestry (blood)
Incest – Taboo
the cultural rule that prohibits sexual intercourse and marriage between specified classes of relatives
Walking Marriage
practiced in China by the Mosou where no one is truly married to one person, but multiple partners of love
marriage within a designated social unit
marriage outside any designated group
form of polygamy in which a man is married to two or more women at one time.
A form of polygamy in which a woman has two or more husbands at one time.
a marriage form in which a person has two or more spouses at one time. Polygyny and polyandry are both forms of polygamy
rule of descent relating a person to a group of consanguine kin on the basis of descent through females only.
rule of descent relating a person to a group of consanguine kin on the basis of descent through males only.
both mother and father’s sides count as family
married couple resides with husband’s parents
married couple resides with wife’s parents
matriarchal society in China
Kalahari Desert
!Kung people live here
Hunt and gather food from wild
kind of subsistence strategy involving semi-intensive, usually shifting, agricultural practices. Slash-and-burn farming is a common example of horticulture.
Slash and Burn
form of horticulture in which wild land is cleared and burned over, farmed, then permitted to lie fallow and revert to its wild state
a subsistence strategy based on the maintenance and use of large herds of animals.
subsistence strategy involving intensive farming of permanent fields through the use of such means as the plow, irrigation, and fertilizer.
a subsistence strategy marked by intensive, mechanized food production and elaborate distribution networks
Subsistence Strategy
strategies used by groups of people to exploit their environment for material necessities. Hunting and gathering, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture, and industrialism
The exchange of goods and services, of approx.. equal value, between two parties
a form of exchange in which goods flow into a central place, where they are sorted, counted, and reallocated
Market Economy
Economies in which production and exchange are motivated by market factors: price, supply, and demand.

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