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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
_______ or ________ is a type of connective tissue. Just like other connective tissues, it is made up of cells and matrix
Bone, or Osseous tissue
Externally, a bone is covered with a sheath called the
The internal surface of a bone is lined
The four types of cells found in osseous tissue are the
osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
Osteogenic cells are the ________ that undergo mitosis and differentiate into osteoblasts
stem cells
bone-forming cells
are mature osteoblasts that have become stuck in their own matrix
are bone-dissolving cells
organic matter
is synthesized by the osteoblasts
osteoblasts includes
collagen, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins
inorganic matter consists mainly of
There are two kinds of bone marrow
red and yellow
Red bone marrow is
hemopoietic (blood producing)
Yellow marrow consists mainly of
adipose tissue and is not hemopoietic (blood producing)
The formation of bone is called
ossification or osteogenesis
Bone develops by two methods,
intramembranous and endochondral ossification
Intramembranous ossification
produces the flat bones of the skull and most of the clavicle
All of our other bones are formed by
endochondral ossification
bone develops from a preexisting model composed of
hyaline cartilage
is the process of dissolving bone and returning its minerals to the bloodstream
Bone resorption is carried out the
__________ is a crystallization process in which calcium, phosphate, and other are ions taken from the blood plasma and deposited into the skeleton
is carried out by the osteoblasts.
A calcium deficiency in the blood is called
Hypocalcemia causes
excessive excitability of the nervous system (leads to muscle tremors, spasms, or tetany)
_______ is the inability of a muscle to relax.
An excess of calcium in the blood is called
Hypercalcemia causes
depression of the nervous system (muscle weakness, sluggish reflexes, and sometimes cardiac arrest)
Calcium homeostasis is regulated by three hormones
calcitriol, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone
calcitriol, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone
increase the blood calcium concentration
lowers the blood calcium concentration
These hormones use different methods to raise or lower the blood calcium levels such as increasing or decreasing osteoblast or osteoclast activity, increasing calcium absorption by the small intestine, and promoting the reabsorption of calcium ions by the kidneys so less calcium is lost in the urine
calcitriol, calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone
if a hormone increases osteoblast activity
blood calcium levels will decrease (Because osteoblasts are bone forming cells)
if a hormone decreases osteoblast activity
cause blood calcium levels to increase (Because less calcium is being taken from the blood and deposited into the skeleton)
Increasing calcium absorption by the small intestine
causes blood calcium levels to increase
Promoting or increasing the reabsorption of calcium ions by the kidneys cause
blood calcium levels to increase because less calcium is lost in the urine
Abnormal calcification of tissues is called
ectopic ossification
A calcified mass in an otherwise soft organ is called a
literally means “porous bones.”
Postmenopausal white women are at the greatest risk
lack of estrogen
Any point where two bones meet is called a
joint, or articulation.
The study of joint structure, function, and dysfunction is called
There are four kinds of joints;
bony, fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial
the adjacent bones are bound by collagen fibers that emerge from one bone, cross the space between them, and penetrate into the other
fibrous joint
bind the bones of the skull together
The attachment of a tooth to its socket is a
___________ the two bones are bound by longer collagenous fibers
The most familiar type of joint is the
synovial joint
In synovial joints, the facing surfaces of the two bones are covered
with articular cartilage.
These surfaces are separated by a narrow space, the
joint cavity
Within the joint cavity is a slippery lubricant called
synovial fluid
A connective tissue ___________ encloses the cavity and retains the fluid
joint (articular) capsule
It has an outer __________ continuous with the periosteum of the adjoining bones, and an inner, cellular _________
fibrous capsule, synovial membrane
The synovial fluid is secreted by fibroblast-like cells of the synovial membrane.
Synovial fluid nourishes the articular cartilages, removes waste from the articular cartilages, and lubricates the joint for almost friction-free movement.
A ________ is a fibrous sac filled with synovial fluid, located between adjacent muscles, where a tendon passes over a bone, or between bone and skin.
The plasma membrane of a muscle fiber is called the _________ and its cytoplasm is called the _________
sarcoplasm, sarcoplasm
Within the sarcoplasm are
myofibrils, glycogen, and myoglobin.
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle fiber is called the
sarcoplasmic reticulum
The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a
reservoir of calcium ions
It forms a network around each myofibril and has dilated end-sacs called
terminal cisternae
The sarcolemma has tubular infoldings called
transverse (T) tubules,
T tubule and the two terminal cisternae associated with it
constitute a triad
Each myofibril is a bundle of protein microfilaments called
There are three kinds of myofilaments
thick, thin, and elastic
Thick filaments are made of several hundred molecules of a protein called
Thin filaments are composed mainly of two intertwined strands of a protein called
fibrous (F) actin
Each fibrous (F) actin is made up of monomers of
globular (G) actin
thin filament also has 40 to 60 molecules of another protein called
Tropomyosin blocks the active sites of G actin in a relaxed muscle fiber. Each tropomyosin molecule has a small calcium-binding protein called
troponin bound to it
Elastic filaments are made of a huge springy protein called
titin (connectin)
Myosin and actin are called
contractile proteins
Tropomyosin and troponin are called
regulatory proteins
Each segment of a myofibril from one _______ to the next is called a _______
Z disc, sarcomere.
One nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers innervated by it are called a
motor unit
_________ is the neurotransmitter responsible for stimulating the muscle fiber.
Acetylcholine is released from
the synaptic knob
When Acetylcholine is done stimulating a muscle fiber it is broken down by the enzyme
In an ________ there are more anions on the inside of the plasma membrane than on the outside.
unstimulated (resting) cell,
Thus the plasma membrane is electrically
This is referred to as the
Resting Membrane Potential (RMP)
When a muscle fiber is stimulated ion gates in the plasma membrane open and
Na+ diffuses down its concentration gradient into the cell
This causes the inside of the plasma membrane to briefly become positive. This change is called
depolarization of the membrane
Na+ gates eventually close and K+ gates open. K+ diffuses
out of the cell down its concentration gradient
The loss of positive potassium ions from the cell turns the inside of the membrane negative again
The calcium ion gates on the synaptic knob are
voltage-regulated. They open and close in response to changes in voltage (action potentials)
The acetylcholine receptor ion gates of the sarcolemma are
Muscle contraction or tension without a change in length is called
isometric contraction.
Muscle contraction with a change in length but no change in tension is called
isotonic contraction
muscle shortens as it maintains tension
isotonic concentric contraction
a muscle lengthens as it maintains tension.
isotonic eccentric contraction
There are two pathways for ATP synthesis
aerobic respiration and anaerobic fermentation
produces lactic acid as an end product
Anaerobic fermentation
In the absence of oxygen a cell must get it’s ATP by this pathway
Lactic acid is a major contributor to muscle fatigue
In a short, intense exercise such as 6 seconds of sprinting the
phosphagen system supplies most of the ATP
There are two physiological classes of muscle fibers,
slow oxidative and fast glycolytic.
Slow oxidative fibers are also called
slow-twitch, red, or type I
Fast glycolytic fibers are also called
fast-twitch, white, or type II fibers
_________ depends on a variety of anatomical and physiological factors including
Muscular strength, muscle size, fascicle arrangement, and size of active motor units
Skeletal muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and smooth muscle cells may also be called
Cardiac muscle cells are also called
Each cardiocyte is joined to other cardiocytes through linkages called
intercalated discs
These intercalated discs contain _______ that allow each cardiocyte to directly stimulate its neighbors, and _______ that keep the cardiocytes from pulling apart when the heart contracts.
electrical gap junctions, mechanical junctions
The intercalated discs histologically appear as thick dark lines in stained tissue sections. Cardiac muscle is highly resistant to fatigue because it uses
aerobic respiration almost exclusively
Muscle contraction in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle is triggered by calcium ions, although in smooth muscle the calcium ions come mainly from the
extracellular fluid by way of calcium ion channels in the sarcolemma.
There are two functional categories of smooth muscle,
multiunit and single-unit.
________ smooth muscle is more widespread than multiunit smooth muscle.
Smooth muscle cells are
Even though smooth muscle cells contain thick and thin myofilaments, they are not aligned with each other and therefore produce
no visible striations.
Since we do not have conscious control over smooth muscle, it is described as