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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Integument Structure

- What parts of the body make up the integument?
- How big is the integument organ?
- skin, nails, hair, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands
- largest organ in the body
Functions of Integument
- Protection (chemical, physical, and biological barrier)
- Prevents loss of water
- temperature regulation
- metabolic regulation
- immune defense
- sensory receptors
- excretion (waste goes out) by means of secretion (creating substance)
REGIONS OF THE SKIN (superficial to deep)

1. Top two (second one is wavy) tissue and blood supply

2. middle region (where hair ends are, etc) tissue and blood supply

3. bottom region (not a part of integument)
1. Epidermis - Epithelial tissue | avascular

2. Dermis - Connective tissue | vascular

3. Hypodermis - not a part of integument | connective tissue | vascular
Epidermis (top layer)

- Type and characteristics of integument - naming (squamous, etc)

- Layers (superficial to deep)
Can Loud Girls Sing Bass
- Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

- Stratum Corneum
- Stratum Lucidum (only in thick skin)
- Stratum Granulosum
- Stratum Spinosum
- Stratum Basale (Germinativum) (largest cells)
Cells of the Epidermis (top layer)

1. Keratinocytes
- abundance?
- what do they produce?
- found in which layers?

2. Epidermal Dendritc Cells (Langerhans Cells)
- role in immune system?
- found in what layer?

3. Melanocytes -
- what do they produce?
- found in what layer?

4. Tactile Cells (Merkel Cells)
- function?
- found in what layer?
- most abundant
- produce keratin
- found in all layers

- macrophages in the immune response
- stratrum spinosum

- Produce melanin
- stratum basale

- sensory receptors
- stratum basale
Skin Color

1. Hemoglobin (location and effects)
2. Melanin (produced by, UV interaction)
3. Carotene (where found, effects)
1. Found in blood, causes pink hue in Caucasian skin
2. Produced by melanocytes | UV exposure darkens existing melanin and stimulates melanocytes
3. Found in plants, causes yellow to orange pigment
Skin Markings (Describe origin)
1. Nevus, mole, or birthmark
2. Freckles
3. Hemangioma
4. Friction Ridges
1. Overgrowth of melanin-forming cells | harmless unless it mutates and becomes malignant
2. Yellowish or brown spots from excessive melanocyte activity, NOT increased melanocyte cells
3. Congenital anomoly, port-wine stains
4. Formed by epidermal ridges and darmal papillae | fingerprinpts, patterns are well formed by 4th month of fetal development
Dermis (middle region)
1. Name the two layers and their CT shapes)
- Epidermal ridges
- Dermal papillae
- Papillary layer (areolar CT) - upper
- Reticular layer (dense irregular CT) - lower
Striae, Wrinkles, and Cleavage Lines

1. Striae (stretch marks)
2. Wrinkles (cause and description)
3. Cleavage lines (what are they)
1. torn collagen
2. caused by age and UV exposure | decreased flexibility and thickness of dermis
3. Orientation of collagen bundles
Hypodermis (subcutaneous) lower region

- What types of connective tissue?
- what's it do to skin?
- what's it allow skin to do?
- size in women/men?
- Areolar and Adipose connective tissue
- Anchors skin to underlying structures
- allows skin to slide freely
- larger in women than men

1. Placement:
- free edge
- Eponychium (cuticle)
- Lunula

2. what type of modification of epidermis?
3. What does it contain that makes it hard?
4. where does it grow from?
2. scale like modification of epidermis
3. Keratin - hardening effect
4. Grows from the nail matrix
Location and Function of Hair

1. Hair found everywhere except?
2. Functions (3)
1. palms, soles, lips, sides of fingers, and toes, and parts of external genitalia
2. protects from the sun, senses touch, and reduces heat loss
Types of Hair

1. Lanugo
2. Vellus
3. Terminal
1. fine downy hair on fetuses
2. hair on arms and legs, fine hair
3. hair on head, pubic region, and men's facial hair
Hair Structure and Growth

1. two main parts of hair
2. Muscle involved
1. Root and shaft (beyond epidermis)
2. Arrector pili muscle

1. Diffuse hair loss
2. Male Pattern Baldness (gene and hormonal influences)
3. Alopecia
2. Baldness gene is dominant in males | Testosterone causes terminal hair to be replaced by vellus hair
3. thinning of the hair
Exocrine Glands

1. Sebaceous (oil) glands
- occurs over entire body except?
- produces what lubricant?

2. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands
- Merocrine (eccrine) glands -
- Apocrine glands -
1. Occur over entire body except palms and soles
- produce SEBUM as lubricant

2. most numerous, swear or sensible perspiration
- apocrine glands - confined to axillary, nipple, anal, and genital areas; viscous sweat
1. First degree
2. Second degree
3. Third degree
1. damages epidermis
2. damages epidermis and part of the dermis
3. damages entire dermis
Types of Skin Cancer
1. Basal Cell Carcinoma
2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
3. Malignant Melanoma
1. most common type, least dangerous, originates in STRATUM BASALE
2. Arises from keratinocytes
3. Most deadly type, arises from melanocytes (usually a preexisting mole), early detection crucial
ABCD rule of malignant melanoma recognition

A =
B =
C =
D =
Asymmetry - onehalf of mole doesnt match the other
Border - edges notched, irregular, blurred or ragged
Color - not uniform, different shades
Diameter - Larger the 1/4 inch