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158 Cards in this Set

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Positive Nitrogen Balance

Recover after illness, athletic training, certain hormones (insulin, testorsterone, growth hormone)

Negative Nitrogen Balance

Inadequate intake of protein (fasting, low absorption) deficiency of EAA

Lipoprotein with highest concentration of TRIG. Dietary lipids. Enter lymphatic system and bloodstream.

Chylomicrons

Lipoprotein made in the liver. High concentration of TRIG. Removes TRIG and picks up cholesterol to become LDL. High levels associated with diabetes/obesity/refined sugars

VLDL

Lipoprotein with high concentration of cholesterol. Receptors on cells allow to enter. Deposits cholesterol and other lipids onto cells.

LDL

Lipoprotein made in the liver and sm amounts in intestines. Removes cholesterol from cells to be broken down by the liver. High amounts assoicated with health/longevity

HDL

Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria. Live microbial food ingredients that have a beneficial effect on health when ingested in live and sufficient numbers. Fermented products.

Probiotics

Fructo-oligosaccharides. Short chain simple sugars. Nondigestible food products that stimulate growth of desirable bacteria.

Prebiotic

What do lipids, carbs, and proteins bread down to before entering the TCA cycle?

Acetyl CoA

The first step of the TCA cycle.

Condensation reaction

The TCA cycle is located in the _________

Mitochondria

Coenzymes often have ___ vitamins with them.

B vitamins

Where cytochromes are located

Heme iron

The mineral found in cytochromes

iron

This enzyme is found in the respiratory chain aka Electron transport chain

Coenzyme Q

Involuntary movements of the longitudinal and circular muscles in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines

Peristalsis

Pyruvate into Acetyl CoA is an ________ reaction

Irreversible

The breaking down of complex molecules into simpler ones.

Catabolism

When does the body make lactic acid?

When oxygen is limited.

A shunt of glycolysis in the liver, adipose, mammary glands, testes, RBC. Produces NADPH for fatty acid and steroid synthesis.

Hexose Monophosphate Pathway

Straight chain starch, more resistant to fiber.

Amylose

Branched chain starch, easier to digest

Amylopectin

Substrates used to make glucose in gluconeogensis

Glucagon and cortisol

Functions of insulin

1. Anabolic hormone that lowers blood glucose


2. Muscles, adipose, and and tissues are dependent on insulin to take in glucose


3. Stimulates phosphorylation of glucose


4. Insulin stimulates glycogenesis

Low glycemic index foods

legumes, non starchy vegetables

When there are high levels of ketones due to fat breakdown

Ketosis

Highest amount of cholesterol people should consume

300 mg

The break down of fatty acid in numerous Acetyl-CoA molecules so Acetyl-CoA can enter the citric acid cycle

Beta-oxidations

The most active form of Vitamin E

Alpha-tocopherol

What does Vitamin A deficiency cause?

-Keratinization


-xerophthalmia (eye problems)

Iron overload caused by genetic disorder, the mucosal block works less efficiently in those with ___________

Hemochromotosis

Hemoglobin carries _______

oxygen

The body's iron storage

About 5g of iron stored in RBC

_______ increases iron absorption

Vitamin C

Heme iron is found in:

Meat, shellfish, beef, poultry, organ meats.

How much of heme iron is absorbed?

15-35%

How much of non-heme iron is absorbed?

2-10%

__________ regulates zinc absorption

Metallothionein

Trace mineral found in teeth and bones

Fluoride

Mineral with glutathione peroxidase

Selenium

Good food sources of zinc

Ground beef, oysters, steak, crab, broccoli

Results of zinc toxicity

Raised LDL, lower HDL, lower body copper

__________ hampers utilization of iodine

Thyroid hormone

_________ increases excretion of chromium

High sugar intakes, strenuous exercise, physical trauma

Good food sources of copper

Seafood, nuts, grains, seeds, legumes, chocolate

Iodine deficiency causes _________

Cretinism

The amount of sodium in "low salt" products

<140mg

Good food sources of potassium

Bananas, broccoli, carrots, tomato juiuce, strawberries, squash, artichoke

Diuertics can have an adverse affect on these minerals

Magnesium & Potassium

Condition in which sodium amount in blood is lower than normal. Causes: burns, diarrhea, heart failure, kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, vomiting

Hypoatremia

_____ deficiency leads to beriberi and wrist/ankle drop

B1, Thiamine

How is lymph fluid formed?

Fluid from blood plasma that is not reabsorbed by blood vessels drains into the lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic drainage prevents accumulation of too much tissue fluid.

3 Ds of Pellegra

Dementia, dermatitis, diarrhea

_____________ are both electrolytes and dissociate in water to form charged ions

Potassium and sodium

____ iron is the best absorbed

Heme

RBC use ___________ for energy

Glucose

AA that is a precursor to Niacin

Tryptophan

Who should avoid eating aspartame?

People with PKU- avoid phenylalanines

Branched Chain AA are metabolized in _______

Muscles

Linolenic acid (canola, linseed, soybean) is used to make:

EPA and DHA

Aldosterone function:

Regulate blood pressure

Groups of similar cells that perform a common function

Tissue

The body stores glucose as this

Glycogen

Frequent acid reflux can lead to this

GERD

The pancreas releases the digestive enzyme _________ into small intestine

Bicarbonate

An organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degredative enzymes enclosed in a membrane

Lysosomes

Movement across membranes that does not require input of energy

Passive membrane transport

Reaction in which hydrogens or electron are lost

Oxidation

Reaction in which electrons or hydrogens are gained

Reduction

When does ketosis take place?

When there is not sufficient glucose to provide energy for the body. Can happen when the body is lacking insulin and blood glucose levels become high, or on a low carb diet. Fats are broken down.

Milk is sold in opaque containers to prevent destruction of this vitamin

B2: riboflavin

The main objective of this diet is to lower blood pressure

DASH

This hormone decreases water excretion by the kidneys

Antidiuretic hormone

The thirst center is located in the:

Hypothalamus

This is the fastest body mechanism for regulating pH

The buffer system

This deficiency during pregnancy is associated with neural tube defects and spina bifida.

Folate

Lack of intrinsic factor is associated with _________ anemia

Pernicious

Pyridoxine is a form of this vitamin

B6

Eating raw eggs could lead to this deficiency

B7: biotin

Good food sources of folate

Leafy greens, legumes, liver

______ is required for hydroxylation of lysine and proline

Vitamin C

Transamination makes _____ AA

Nonessential

Vitamin B6 deficiency leads to this anemia

Microcytic hypochromic anemia

These cells help bones to repair

Osteoblast

This decreases blood calcium

Calcitonin

This vitamin is important for blood coagulation

Vitamin K

The process of removing an amino group from an AA and giving it to another substance to form a new AA

Transamination

People with high uric acid levels are likely to develop:

Gout

A low intake of this vitamin could lead to bone loss

Vitamin D

What is PDCAAS

Protein digestibility corrected amino acid score

Milk has a high _____

PDCAAS

The biologically active form of vitamin K

Menadione

Lymphocytes carry _______ in circulation

Antibodies

The common antibody involved in allergic reactions

IgE

This immunity recognizes a limited number of markers unique to pathogens

Innate internal immunity

Mechanical digestion in the mouth

Mastication

The primary cause of ulcers

Helicobacter Pylori

These cells attack viruses

T cells

Urea is formed by a ________ reaction

Condensation

Glycine is a _____ AA

Nonessential

Where is hydroxyproline found?

Collagen

This AA regulates blood pressure

Arginine

Caused by moderate energy deficiency and severe protein deficiency

Kwashiorkor

Vitamin ___ stimualtes osteoclast cells

D

Spinach is a good source of _________

Provitamin A

Phylloquine is a form of:

Vitamin K

The most glucogenic AA

Alanine

The active form of Vitamin D

Calcitriol

Intestinal bacteria make:

Menaquinone

Needed for gene expression

Retinoic Acid

When the cell membrane forms a vesicle that surrounds extracellular substances and releases them into the cell

Endocytosis

When a vesicle formed inside the cell releases products made in the cell into extracellular fluid

Exocytosis

When carbs combine with lipids or protein to make glycolipids or glycoproteins

Glycocalyx

Phospholipid bilayer

Have both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic moiety. Core is hydrophobic, helps restain essential water soluble substances in the cell

Immunity that develops in one's lifetime and is a result of exposure to invaders and antigens

Acquired

Immunity: 3rd line of defense, specific. Antibody mediated (humoral) or cell mediated

Adaptive

Protein released by plasma cell (daughter of an activated B cell). Produce humoral immunity by changing antigens. Binds antigens-attracts macrophafes-expose complement binding sites

Antibodies

Immunity that involves T cells. Directed against intracellular pathogens and cancerous cells. Can't be transferred in plasma.

Cellular immunity

All chemicals except antibodies released leukocytes. Inflammatory mediators

Cytokines

Immunity that involves B cells and the antibodies they produce. Directed against extracellular pathogens. CAN be transferred in plasma

Humoral immunity

Immunity that is the first line of defense. Surface barriers. Nonspecific- general protection. Relies on mechanisms that exist before infection

Innate external

White blood cells that provide protection against ingested microorganisms

Macrophages

Enzyme found chiefly in saliva and pancreatic fluid that converts starch and glycogen into simple sugars

Amylase

The amount of bile (emulsifier) secreted by liver per day

1200 mL

Hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric juice, and is secreted into the bloodstream by the stomach wall in response to the presence of food

Gastrin

The protrusion of an organ, typically the stomach, through the esophogeal opening in the diaphragm

Hiatal hernia

Reaction in which a molecule is cleaved into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. One fragment of the parent molecule gains a hydrogen ion from the additional water molecule. The other group collects the remaining hydroxyl group (OH-)

Hydrolysis

Nutrition Care Process Steps

Assess


Diagnose


Intervention


Monitor


Evaluation

Part of nutrition prescription that concisely states the patient's individualized recommended dietary intake of energy and/or selected foods or nutrients. Based on current reference standards and dietary guidelines and the patients health condition and nutrition diagnosis

Nutrition Prescription

PES Statement

_________(problem) related to _________ (etiology) as evidenced by ___________ (signs and symptoms)

The adrenal gland releases _____ & __________

Cortisol and epinephrine

Cycle that regenerates glucose. Involves glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Used under conditions of limited oxygen availability. Provided small amounts of ATP

Cori Cycle

Stimulates gluconeogensis and glycogenolysis. Released from alpha cells in pancreas

Glucagon

Formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources in liver and kidney. Active when fasting and inadequate supply of insulin. Stimulated by glucagon and cortisol.

Gluconeogenesis

Converting glucose to glycogen. Insulin stimulates.

Glycogenesis

The breakdown of glycogen. Muscle and adipose breaks down to glu-6-phosphtae. Liver and kidney breaks down to glucose. Stimulated by glucagon and epinephrine

Glycogenolysis

Glucose-hemoglobin unit. Glucose attaches to hemoglobin in the oxygen carrying molecule in RBC. Reflects sugar exposure to the cells over its life (3 months)

Glycosolated hemoglobin

Hexosekinase is _______ by high concentration of glucose

Inhibited

Caused by obesity and is a precursor for the development of type 2 diabetes. The inability of insulin receptors to respond to insulin

Insulin resistance

Used to make genetic material. Very little in diet, readily made in the cell. Part of ATP, NAD, ribolfavin

Pentoses

Carbs RDA

130 g. 45-46% of total calories

5-10% of diabetes. Most often in kids. Caused by lack of insulin production by the pancreatic B cells. Autoimmune disorder that destroys B cells. Insulin injections or pumps required.

Type 1 Diabetes

90-95% of diabetes. Insulin resistance: insulin receptors can't respond to insulin.

Type 2 Diabetes

USDA Fiber label guidelines

High fiber= 5g or more


Good source= 2.5-4.9g

Group of compounds made from arachidonic acid and EPA. Assists in regulating blood pressure, blood clotting, immune response. Chemical messengers. Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes.

Eicosanoids

AMDR of fat

20-35% of total calories

Lipoprotein in HDL. Should be high to decrease risk of heart disease.

ApoA-1

Lipoprotein in LDL. Should be low

ApoB

How much EPA and DHA acids should you have a day

300-400mg

Omega 6 fatty acid. Made in the body from linoleic acid. May be reduced in advanced age, diabetes, high alcohol intake

Gamma-linolenic acid

Sterols made by plants that resemble cholesterol. Avg intake is 150-350mg/day. Sterols best consumed with a meal, can reduce cholesterol in 3 weeks. Those on statin drugs could benefit.

Plant sterols

Hydrophobic compounds that combines with a protein to make a chylomicron

Cholesterol

Trans fat that some researchers claim to be less harmful than others.

Conjugated linoleic acid

Enzyme that catobolizes the hydrolysis of ester bonds that attach fatty acid to the glycerol molecule. Liberates fatty acids from adipose cell

Hormone-sensitive lipase

Process that yields a product more saturated, more spreadable, and more resistant to oxidation. Enhances stability.

Hydrogenation

RDA of saturated fat

Less than 7% of calories. about 16g per day.

Drugs that decrease blood cholesterol by inhibiting one of the enzymes needed for synthesis.

Statin drugs

Ester of glycerol and 3 fatty acids. Most common lipid in foods and the body

Triglycerides