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50 Cards in this Set

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What is the recommended repetition range for resistance exercises to improve muscular endurance?

Pg. 29


15-20 reps to improve ENDURANCE

Skill-related components of physical fitness include

Pg. 28


-agility


-coordination


-balance


-power


-reaction time


-speed

lifting heavier loads and performing a lower number of reps to improve muscular strength is an example of the principle of

Pg. 30


specificity

The principle that demonstrates importance of continued physical activity throughout life

Pg 30


reversibility

Most group fitness classes should integrate some form of...

Pg. 31


warm-up, conditioning phase, and cool-down

health-related components of physical fitness are

pg. 27


-Cardiorespiratory endurance


-muscular endurance


-muscular strength


-flexibility


-body composition

Stretching during the cool-down should include those muscle groups that people typically use during their activities of daily living.

Static stretches should be limited to five to 10 seconds during the warm-up.

Muscular endurance

The ability of a muscle to perform repeated or sustained contractions without fatigue(HEALTH)

Muscular strength

The ability of a muscle to exert maximal force(HEALTH)

Flexibility

The range of motion (ROM) of a joint(HEALTH)

Body Composition

The relative amount of fat mass and fat free mass in the body (HEALTH)

Balance

The ability to maintain equilibrium while stationary or moving (SKILL)

Speed

The ability to perform a movement within a short period of time (SKILL)

Coordination

The ability to smoothly and accurately perform complex movements(SKILL)

Power

The rate at which work can be performed; performing muscle contractions at high velocity (SKILL)

Agility

The ability to rapidly and accurately change the position of the body in space (SKILL)

Reaction time

the amount of time elapsed between the stimulus for movement and the beginning of the movement (SKILL)

Coordination

the ability to smoothly and accurately perform complex movements (SKILL)

intensity levels is MOST appropriate for novice to intermediate exercisers seeking to improve their strength

60-70% intensity for novice to intermediate to improve strength

WARM UP benefits include

-increased metabolic rate


-gradual redistribution of blood flow to working muscles


-decreased muscle-relaxation time following contraction


-increased speed and force of muscle contraction


-increased muscle, tendon,ligament elasticity


-gradual increase in energy production -limits lactic acid build up


-reduce risk of abnormal heart rhythms

Principles guiding the warm up are:

-includes appropriate amount of dynamic movement


-focuses largely on rehearsal moves


-all major muscles groups (if appropriate) are addressed through range of motion movements


-verbal directions are clear and volume, tempo,atmosphere created

Class content can vary dramatically from one class to another

freestyle choreography

class content is relatively consistent from one class to another

pre-choreographed

Energy Pathways:


-Carbohydrates


-Fats


-Protein

-carbs- stored as glucose/glycogen


-Fats- stored as triglycerides (endless supply of energy)


-Protein - building blocks of human structure, not a primary source of energy

Four muscles responsible for HIP EXTENSION

Gluteus Maximus, Biceps femoris-long head, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus

Six muscles responsible for HIP FLEXORS

Tensor fasciael latae, Sartorius, Rectus femoris, Psoas minor, Psoas major, Iliacus

Flexion

The act of moving a joint so that the two bones forming are brought closer together.

Extension

The act of straightening or extending a joint, usually applied to the muscular movement of a limb

Eversion




Inversion

Pg 36, Frontal Plane


-Rotation of the foot to direct the plantar surface outward




-Rotation of the foot to direct plantar surface inward

-Abduction




-Adduction

Frontal Plan




-Movement of a limb away from the midline of the body




-Movement toward the midline of the body

Dorsiflexion




Plantar flexion

Saggital Plane




-Movement of the foot up toward the shin


-Pointing toes, move foot away from shin

Sagittal Plane

-separates body into Right and Left halves. Forward and backward movements occur in sagittal plane.


-Joint action:

Frontal Plan

-separates body into anterior and posterior (front[ventral] and back[dorsal]) Lateral movements occur in frontal plane;


-Joint actions: abduction/adduction (shoulder/hips);lateral spinal flexion; ankle eversion/inversion. Jumping jacks, lateral lunge.

Transverse Plane

-divides the body into upper(superior) and lower(inferior) parts. Rotation or twisting movements occur in the transverse plane, ie bicycle crunches, trunk rotations.


-Joint actions: rotation, horizontal shoulder abduction/adduction

Zone1




Zone2




Zone3

Z1 Low to moderate intensity, can talk comfortably




Z2 moderate to vigorous aerobic, challenging to talk but possible




Z3 vigorous to very vigorous, cannot talk comfortably

What is the primary action of the longissimus, spinalis, and iliocostalis muscles?

Group name: Erector Spinae


Joint action: spinal extension

A. Glenohumeral=mobility


B. Scapulothoracic=stability


c. thoracic spine=mobility


d. lumbar spine=stability


e. hip=mobility


f. knee=stability


g. ankle = mobility


h. foot = stability

1.Emphasis on a given beat

2.Deemphasized beat in a piece of music


3.Regular pulsations that have an even rhythm and occur in a continuous pattern of strong and weak pulsations


4. short musical passage; use in choreography



1.Accent


2.Upbeat


3.beats


4.musical phrase

5. rate of speed of music, usually expressed as beats per minute


6. The organization of beats into musical patterns or measures


7.One group of beats in a musical composition marked by regular occurrence of the heavy accent


8. regular strong pulsation in music occurring in a continuous pattern at an even rhythm

5.Tempo


6.Meter


7.Measure


8.downbeats

-Can cause ankle sprains and knee injuries during lateral movements and pivoting


-Difficult to maintain hygienically

Carpeting

Allows for lateral movement and pivoting; Offers good traction for dynamic movements

Hardwood flooring

1. Offers very little shock absorption




2. Typically offers good shock absorption, but varies in terms of predictability and traction

1. Concrete




2. Grass, sand, hiking trails

Heat Stroke

Hot, dry skin; bright red skin color; rapid, strong pulse; labored breathing; elevated body core temperature 104F or 40C




(stop exercising, remove as much clothing as feasible, try to cool body immediately [wet towels, ice packs/baths, fan, alcohol rub], give fluids, transport to ER immediately)

Heat Exhaustion

weak, rapid pulse; low blood pressure, headache, nausea, dizziness, general weakness, paleness, cold clammy skin, profuse sweating




(stop exercising, move to cool, ventilated area; lie down and elevate feet 12-18 inches, give fluids, monitor temp)

Monitoring Intensity:


1. Target HR


2. RPE (rate of perceived exertion)


3. Talk Test


4. Dyspnea scale

1. training heart rate; Subject to substantial error due to reliance on prediction equations


2.RPE; Assigns a numerical value to subjective feelings of exercise exertion; Takes into account psychological, musculoskeletal, and environmental factors


3.Talk; Takes into account the individual’s metabolic responses to exercise; Especially useful for beginners who are learning to pace themselves


4.Dyspnea; asthma, emphysema...labored, difficulty breathing



Exercising in cold, standing water causes more rapid heat loss than performing the same exercise in cold water with a mild current.




Cold environments can cause an increase in blood pressure.

FALSE






TRUE

Convective heat loss and the rate of body cooling are accelerated by wind




It is important to wear a bottom layer that absorbs sweat when exercising in the cold

TRUE






FALSE

severe signs, such as chest pain or discomfort, heart palpitations, or severe musculoskeletal pain

indicate the need for immediate cessation of exercise and possibly the activation of the emergency medical system.

Other warning signs that a participant is working too hard include labored breathing, excessive sweating, or dizziness

decrease intensity of exercise

The first warning sign that a GFI is likely to observe when a participant is working too vigorously is






The first response to seeing warning signs that a participant is exercising too vigorously is to

breakdown in form and execution of exercise








reduce intensity