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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 most important antigen-presenting cells?
1) dendritic cells
2) macrophage/monocyte
3) B-lymphocytes
What are 6 things secreted once a toll like receptor is activated?
1) cytokines: TNF alpha & IL-1

2) chemokines (chemotatic cytokines)

3) INF-alpha & beta (antivirals)

4) IL-6 stimulates bone marrow to increase WBC count

5) IL-12 activates TH1 & NK cells

6) IL-10 is the inhibitory cytokine to turn down response
What are 3 functions of IL-1 & TNF-alpha?
1) activate endothelial cells so leukocytes can adhere & roll & migrate

2) activate liver to release CRP

3) effect hypothalamus to create fever, depression, anorexia
What do INF-alpha & INF-beta do?
- antiviral cytokines
What does IL-6 do?
- stimulates bone marrow causing increased WBC count
What does IL-12 do? What is special about it?
- stimulates TH1 & NK cells

- bridges b/w innate & acquired immunity by stimulating T cells
What does IL-10 do?
- inhibitory cytokine - turns down immune response
Once TLR on APC is activated they move to the lymph node to interact with ______
- T-cells

- immature dendritic cell before interacted with antigen - then once it did & migrates to the lymph node it becomes a mature dendritic cell
T cells only recognize foreign antigens when they are presented inside _________ molecules
The MHC area is on the _____ arm of the _____ chromosome. It encodes both classes. What are the alleles for MHC I? MHC II?
- short arm

- 6th chromosome

- MHC I: A, B, C

The _____ region on chromosomes is the most polymorphic system in biology
________ is another name of MHC in humans
- HLA: human leukocyte antigen
what is the major reason for graft rejection?
- MHC (HLA) proteins are antigens on transplanted tissue

- recognized by recipient's immune response & attacked --> causes transplant rejection
Every individual inherits ___ haplotypes of MHC molecules. A couple could have ____ children with different haplotypes.
- 2

- 4
every cell in the body has which MHC complex? which cell is an exception? What does the structure of this molecule look like & why is this useful for dying cells?

- red cells are an exception

- has one long chain with alpha regions & an associated beta-microglobulin

- can measure beta-microglobulin in blood to see if cells are dying
MHC II are only found on what kinds of cells? What does the structure of these molecules look like?
- APCs

- one beta & one alpha chain
Both Class I and Class II MHC molecules have a __________. For MHC I who makes this groove?
- peptide binding cleft

- alpha chain (b/c beta microglobulin is just associated, not part of binding)
Ankylosing spondylitis associated with which HLA?
- HLA B27
Narcolepsy is associated with what?
- DQ1 & DR2 (MHC II)
type 1 diabetes is associated with what?
- DR3 or DR4 (MHC II)
rheumatoid arthritis is associated with what?